Identification of Serum Anti-GADD34 Antibody as a Common Marker of Diabetes Mellitus and Parkinson Disease

Sample informationHDDM
Total sample number81275
Male/Female46/35158/117
Type 1 DM/Type 2 DM0/026/216
Age (Average ± SD)45.20 ± 10.9563.12 ± 12.04
Alpha analysis (antibody level)GADD34-Ab
HDAverage1,077
SD616
Cutoff value2,308
Positive number3
Positive rate (%)3.7%
DMAverage2,200
SD1,855
Positive number88
Positive rate (%)32.0%
P value (vs HD)3.47E-16
alzheimers-disease-parkinsonism-acute-phase

Figure 1: Comparison of serum GADD34-Ab levels between HDs and patients. Patients included those with diabetes mellitus (DM) (a), acute-phase cerebral infarction (aCI) (b), or cardiovascular disease (CVD) (c). GST-GADD34 protein was used as the antigen. AlphaLISA-determined serum antibody levels after subtraction of the levels against those of control GST are shown as box-whisker plots displaying the 10th, 20th, 50th, 80th and 90th percentiles. P values calculated using the Mannâ��Whitney U test are shown in a, c and e. The total (male/female) numbers, average values, standard deviations, cut-off values, positive numbers, positive rates (%) and P values obtained using student’s t test are summarized and shown in Tables 1-3. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the abilities of s-GADD34-Abs to detect DM, aCI and CVD (b, d and f). Numbers in the figures indicate the area under the curve (AUC), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and cutoff values for marker levels. Numbers within parentheses indicate sensitivity (left) and specificity (right).

Sample informationHDaCI
Total sample number138228
Male/Female87/51129/99
Age (Average ± SD)51.63 ± 12.7077.04 ± 11.08
Alpha analysis (antibody level)GADD34-Ab
HDAverage992
SD552
Cut-off value2,095
Positive number9
Positive rate (%)6.5%
aCIAverage1,444
SD764
Positive number41
Positive rate (%)18.0%
P value (vs. HD)1.96E-10

Sample informationHDCVD
Total sample number12867
Male/Female35/2322/12
Age (Average ± SD)43.10 ± 12.9362.18 ± 12.80
Alpha analysis (antibody level)GADD34-Ab
HDAverage3,045
SD1,609
Cutoff value6,263

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