Identification of Serum Anti-GADD34 Antibody as a Common Marker of Diabetes Mellitus and Parkinson Disease




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Sample information HD DM
Total sample number 81 275
Male/Female 46/35 158/117
Type 1 DM/Type 2 DM 0/0 26/216
Age (Average ± SD) 45.20 ± 10.95 63.12 ± 12.04
Alpha analysis (antibody level) GADD34-Ab
HD Average 1,077
SD 616
Cutoff value 2,308
Positive number 3
Positive rate (%) 3.7%
DM Average 2,200
SD 1,855
Positive number 88
Positive rate (%) 32.0%
P value (vs HD) 3.47E-16

Figure 1: Comparison of serum GADD34-Ab levels between HDs and patients. Patients included those with diabetes mellitus (DM) (a), acute-phase cerebral infarction (aCI) (b), or cardiovascular disease (CVD) (c). GST-GADD34 protein was used as the antigen. AlphaLISA-determined serum antibody levels after subtraction of the levels against those of control GST are shown as box-whisker plots displaying the 10th, 20th, 50th, 80th and 90th percentiles. P values calculated using the Mannâ��Whitney U test are shown in a, c and e. The total (male/female) numbers, average values, standard deviations, cut-off values, positive numbers, positive rates (%) and P values obtained using student’s t test are summarized and shown in Tables 1-3. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the abilities of s-GADD34-Abs to detect DM, aCI and CVD (b, d and f). Numbers in the figures indicate the area under the curve (AUC), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and cutoff values for marker levels. Numbers within parentheses indicate sensitivity (left) and specificity (right).

Sample information HD aCI
Total sample number 138 228
Male/Female 87/51 129/99
Age (Average ± SD) 51.63 ± 12.70 77.04 ± 11.08
Alpha analysis (antibody level) GADD34-Ab
HD Average 992
SD 552
Cut-off value 2,095
Positive number 9
Positive rate (%) 6.5%
aCI Average 1,444
SD 764
Positive number 41
Positive rate (%) 18.0%
P value (vs. HD) 1.96E-10

Sample information HD CVD
Total sample number 128 67
Male/Female 35/23 22/12
Age (Average ± SD) 43.10 ± 12.93 62.18 ± 12.80
Alpha analysis (antibody level) GADD34-Ab
HD Average 3,045
SD 1,609
Cutoff value 6,263