Topic Overview

What is osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a painful problem with the joints.
Healthy joints help your body move, bend, and twist. Knees glide up
and down stairs without creaking or crunching. Hips move you along on a walk
without a complaint. But when you have arthritis, such
simple, everyday movements can hurt. Using the stairs can
be painful. Walking a few steps, opening a door, and even combing your hair can
be hard.

Arthritis
is mainly a disease of the
spine, hip, hand, knee, and foot. But it can happen in other joints too. A
joint is where two bones connect. And you have them all over your body.

Arthritis is most common in older people. Even
though you can’t cure arthritis, there are many
treatments that can help with your pain and make it easier for you to move. And
you can do things to keep the damage from getting worse.

What causes osteoarthritis?

The simplest way to
describe arthritis is that it’s wear and tear on the
cartilage of your joints. This cushioning tissue is firm, thick, and slippery.
It covers and
protects the ends of bones where they meet to form a joint.

With
arthritis, there are changes in the cartilage that cause it to break down. When
it breaks down, the bones rub together and cause damage and pain. Experts
don’t know why this breakdown in cartilage happens. But
aging, joint injury, being overweight, and genetics may be a part of the
reason.

What are the symptoms?

  • Pain. Your joints may
    ache, or the pain may feel burning or sharp.
  • Stiffness. Getting up in the morning can be hard. Your joints may feel stiff and creaky
    for a short time, until you get moving.
  • Muscle weakness. The muscles around
    the joint may get weaker. This happens a lot with arthritis in the
    knee.
  • Deformed joints. Joints can start to
    look like they are the wrong shape, especially as arthritis gets
    worse.
  • Reduced range of motion and loss of use of the joint. As your arthritis gets worse, you may not be able
    to fully bend, flex, or extend your joints. Or you may not be able to use them
    at all.
  • Cracking and creaking. Your
    joints may make crunching, creaking sounds.

How is osteoarthritis diagnosed?

Your doctor will check that your
pain is not caused by another problem.
He or she will ask questions about your symptoms, such as:

  • Is the pain burning, aching, or sharp?
  • Are your
    joints stiff in the morning? If yes, how long does the stiffness
    last?
  • Do you have any joint swelling?

If your joints are tender and swollen and the muscles are weak, this
will also help your doctor confirm whether you have arthritis. You may also
have X-rays to check your joints for damage.
Your doctor may want to do blood tests or other tests to see if there are other
causes for your pain.

How is it treated?

There are many treatments for arthritis, but what
works for someone else may not help you. Work with your doctor to find what is
best for you. Often a mix of things helps the most.

Your treatment may
include:

  • Using pain medicine.
    If your pain is mild, over-the-counter pain medicines such as acetaminophen (for example,
    Tylenol) and
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may help. Commonly used NSAIDs include ibuprofen (such as Advil and Motrin) and naproxen (such as Aleve). But if these don’t get rid of
    your pain, you may need a stronger prescription medicine. Having shots of
    medicine in the joint also helps some people.
  • Using heat or ice on the painful joint. Heat may help you loosen up before an activity. Ice is a good
    pain reliever after activity or exercise. Your doctor may give you gels or
    creams that you can rub on the joint to make it stop hurting.
  • Losing weight, if you’re overweight. Losing weight may be one
    of the best things you can do for your arthritis. It helps take some of the
    stress off of your joints.
  • Exercising to strengthen your muscles. Having stronger thigh muscles, for example, can help
    reduce stress on your knees. Swimming, biking, and walking are good activities.
    But make sure you talk to your doctor about what kind of activity is best for
    you. You may also get help from a physical therapist.
  • Having surgery. If the pain in your hip or knee does not get better with treatment, you may decide to have surgery to replace the joint.

There are also some things you can do at home to help relieve your symptoms. For example, there are devices and tools that can take the stress and weight off of your joints and make it easier for you to hold objects, open and close things, and walk. Doorknob covers, tape, braces, splints, and canes may help.

You might also try changing activities or the way you do things to reduce the stress on the joint
that hurts and
allow you to move better. For example, walk instead of jog. Or use a sewing machine to make a quilt instead of making it by hand.

Frequently Asked Questions

Learning about osteoarthritis:

Being diagnosed:

Getting treatment:

Living with osteoarthritis:

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Cause

Osteoarthritis occurs
when changes in
cartilage cause it to
break down and wear away.
When cartilage breaks down, the bones rub together and cause damage
and pain. Experts don’t know why this happens. But things like aging, joint
injury, being overweight, and genetics may increase your risk.

In
some cases, arthritis is caused by other conditions that damage cartilage.

Symptoms

Symptoms of
osteoarthritis can range from mild to
severe.

They may include:

  • Pain. Your joints may
    ache, or the pain may feel burning or sharp. For some people, the pain may come
    and go. Constant pain or pain while you sleep may be a sign that your arthritis
    is getting worse.
  • Stiffness. When you have arthritis, getting up in the morning
    can be hard. Your joints may feel stiff and creaky for a short time, until you
    get moving. You may also get stiff from sitting.
  • Muscle weakness.
    The muscles around the joint may get weaker. This happens a lot with arthritis
    in the knee.
  • Swelling. Osteoarthritis does not usually cause much swelling but may cause a little, especially in the knees.
  • Deformed joints. Joints can start to look like they are the
    wrong shape, especially as arthritis gets worse.
  • Reduced range of motion and loss of use of the joint. As your
    arthritis gets worse, you may not be able to fully bend, flex, or extend your joints. Or you may not be able to use them at all.
  • Cracking and creaking. Your joints may make crunching,
    creaking sounds. This creaking may also occur in a normal joint. But in most cases, it doesn’t hurt and doesn’t mean that there is anything wrong with the joint.
  • Sleep problems. The pain and stiffness of arthritis can disrupt sleep. And sleep problems may make it harder to cope with pain.

Arthritis of the spine can also narrow the openings
that make space for the spinal cord and for the nerves that branch off the
spinal cord (spinal nerves). This is called
spinal stenosis. It can lead to pressure on the spinal
cord or spinal nerves. This pressure can cause pain, weakness, or
numbness.

Some medical
conditions can cause symptoms similar to osteoarthritis, such as joint injuries and other forms of arthritis.

One Man’s Story:

A man

Steve, 55

“I thought the stiffness and pain in my
hip was just from the stress I was putting on my muscles. But when I changed my
exercise routine or stopped working out, the pain was still there … The
pain would come and go. It wasn’t a sharp pain, but a kind of ache that would
keep me awake a lot. I could never stay in one position for very long.”-Steve

Read more about Steve and how he learned to cope with arthritis.

What Happens

Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions your joints breaks down and
wears away. When this happens, the bones rub together and cause damage and
pain. In most cases, it takes years for cartilage to break down.

It’s hard to know how fast arthritis may
progress.
You may not have any symptoms for years, until the bones
and tissues become damaged. Or symptoms may come and go, stay the
same, or get worse over time.

Arthritis can
cause problems in any joint in the body. But in most cases, you’ll have
symptoms in only one or two joints or
groups of joints. Arthritis may cause problems in your
hands,
hips,
knees, or
feet, and sometimes in your
spine. At first, you may only
feel pain when you’re active. As the disease
gets worse, you may also feel pain when you’re
at rest.

If you have arthritis in your
fingers, the joints at the tip or middle part of your fingers may get bigger
and form bumps. These are known as
Heberden’s and Bouchard’s nodes.

Even though there is no cure
for arthritis, most people can manage their symptoms with medicine
and lifestyle changes. But in a few people, arthritis or complications of arthritis may
get so bad that they decide to have surgery to replace the worn joint or to fuse the bones together so
that the joint won’t bend.

What Increases Your Risk

Things that can
increase your risk for
osteoarthritis are called risk factors. Some risk
factors, such as your age or family history, can’t be changed or
prevented.

You may be able to reduce other risk factors by making lifestyle changes or taking medicine.

Risk factors you may be able to change or prevent

  • Being overweight. Extra weight puts added stress on your joints and can change
    the normal shape of the joint.
  • Joint injury. A
    single major injury to a joint or several minor injuries can cause cartilage
    damage over time. Activities that put repeated stress on a joint include
    squatting, kneeling, or heavy lifting common to some sports and
    jobs.
  • Lack of exercise, which can cause your muscles and joints to get weak and stiff.

Risk factors you can’t change

  • Getting older. Age is not a direct cause of arthritis, but as you get older
    you’re more likely to have symptoms. Still, not all older adults will have
    joint pain.
  • A family history of arthritis.
  • Loose or odd-shaped joints. Knees that bend outward (bowleg) or knees that bend
    toward each other (knock knees), for example, can cause an imbalance in the
    joints, because the
    cartilage wears down at an uneven
    rate.
  • A previous infection of the joint.
  • Other types of
    arthritis
    , such as
    rheumatoid arthritis or
    psoriatic arthritis.
  • Metabolic or endocrine problems. These include a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis), copper (Wilson’s disease), or calcium (hyperparathyroidism) in the blood and
    tissues of the body.
  • Decreased nerve function.

When To Call a Doctor

Call your
doctor if you have:

  • Sudden, unexplained swelling, warmth, or pain
    in any joint.
  • Joint pain with a fever or rash.
  • Pain so bad that you can’t
    use your joint.
  • Mild joint
    symptoms that last more than 6 weeks and don’t get better with home
    treatment.
  • Side effects from pain medicine.
    You can have side effects when you take large doses of pain medicine. Do not take more than
    the recommended dose of medicine without first talking to your
    doctor.

Watchful waiting

If you have mild joint pain and stiffness, first try
home treatment, such as using ice and heat. If you don’t feel
better in 6 weeks, or if you have other
symptoms, call your doctor.

Who to see

Arthritis can be managed
by:

Other health professionals may be
part of the treatment team, such as:

To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.

Exams and Tests

In most cases, your doctor can
tell you if you have
osteoarthritis and recommend treatment based on your
symptoms and by doing a
physical exam. Your doctor may also do some
other tests to be sure that the diagnosis is correct or to rule out other
conditions that have similar symptoms.

These tests may
include:

  • A joint fluid
    study
    . A sample of the fluid that
    cushions the joint is removed and sent to the lab to look for the cause of
    joint pain and swelling.
  • X-rays. Pictures of the bones in a joint, such as the
    hip
    or knee, are taken to look for cartilage
    damage.

Other tests may include a
urine test and one or more blood
tests, such as:

Treatment Overview

Even though
there is no cure for
osteoarthritis, treatment can help reduce your
symptoms and make it possible for you to lead a full and active
life.

The goals of
treatment are to:

  • Reduce your pain and
    stiffness.
  • Keep your joints working and
    moving well.
  • Keep you from becoming
    disabled.
  • Prevent more damage to your
    joints.

Treatment is based on:

  • How bad your symptoms
    are.
  • How much your symptoms prevent
    you from doing your daily
    tasks.
  • How well other treatments
    have worked.
  • How much damage to the
    joint (or joints) you have.

Treatment for mild to moderate
arthritis

In most cases, people who have mild to
moderate arthritis can manage their symptoms for many
years with a treatment plan that may include:

Some people with arthritis also feel down or depressed. They may describe this as feeling “depressed,” “unhappy,” “short-tempered,” “blue,” or “down in the dumps.” If you feel like this most of the time, tell your doctor. Treating these symptoms may help you feel better and make it easier for you to do your daily tasks.

Treatment if arthritis gets worse

If the pain and stiffness from arthritis don’t get
better or they get worse, your doctor may
recommend:

If your pain is very bad, you may decide to have
surgery to replace the joint. Or you may decide to have some other kind of surgery that
can help keep your joints moving well and prevent your arthritis from getting
worse.

Some types of surgery
include:

Prevention

You can take steps to help prevent
osteoarthritis. If you already have arthritis, these
same steps may keep it from getting worse.

  • Stay at a healthy weight or lose weight if you need to. Extra weight puts a
    lot of stress on the large, weight-bearing joints such as the knees,
    the hips, and the balls of the feet. Experts estimate that every
    1 lb (0.5 kg) of body weight
    adds about
    4 lb (1.8 kg) of stress
    to the knee.footnote 1 This
    means that if you lost just
    5 lb (2.3 kg), you
    could take
    20 lb (9.1 kg) of stress off
    your knees.
  • Be active. A lack of exercise can cause your muscles and joints to
    become weak. But light to moderate exercise can help keep
    your muscles strong and reduce joint pain and stiffness. For example, if your quadriceps (the muscles
    in the front of your thigh) are weak, you may be more likely to get arthritis
    of the knee.

  • Protect your joints. Try not to do tasks that cause pain or swelling in joints. And try to use the largest joints or
    strongest muscles to do things. A single major injury to a joint or several
    minor injuries can damage cartilage over time.

Home Treatment

When you have
osteoarthritis, you may find it hard to do your daily
tasks. Your joints may ache or feel stiff, and they may hurt when you
move. You can do some things at
home to feel better.

Lifestyle changes

  • Rest. If your
    joints hurt a lot or are swollen, take a break. But try not to let too much
    time pass before you get moving again. A lack of activity can cause your
    muscles and joints to become weak. Getting enough sleep can help your mood and help you cope with pain. If you are having trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor.
  • Stay at a healthy weight. Being overweight puts extra stress on your
    joints. But losing weight can help. It can decrease the symptoms of osteoarthritis and allow you to be more active.footnote 2
  • Exercise.
    Some
    people may be reluctant to exercise when they have arthritis, but it can help
    reduce pain and improve balance. Try exercises that don’t put a lot of stress on your joints, such as
    swimming, biking, walking, water exercises, and lifting light weights. And consider taking an exercise class designed for people who have arthritis. Many fitness clubs, community centers, and senior centers offer these classes. Be sure to talk to your doctor or physical
    therapist about what kind of activity is best for you.

Use devices

Change how you do things

  • Protect your joints. There are some things that you can do to protect your joints.
    For example:

    • Try not to do tasks that cause pain or swelling in joints.
    • Use the largest joints or strongest
      muscles to do things. For example, when you lift a heavy object off the floor,
      use your hip and knee muscles, not your back. Or when you carry a bag of
      groceries, use the palm of your hand or your forearm instead of grasping it
      with your fingers.
  • Change activities. If your joints hurt when you do an
    activity, try other ways of doing it that don’t cause pain. For example, walk
    instead of jog. Or use a sewing machine to make a quilt instead of making it by hand.
  • Modify your home and work area. If you have a hard time moving around or if you get tired
    easily, try making some changes in your home and work areas. For example,
    use a reacher to pick up things off the floor. Or for tasks that you would
    normally do standing up, use a tall stool instead so you can sit
    down.
  • Maintain good posture. Poor
    posture puts stress on your back and neck. The key to good posture is to keep
    the right amount of curve in your lower back. Too much curve (swayback) or too
    little (flat back) can cause problems. Having good posture can help reduce
    pain.
  • Wear comfortable and supportive shoes. If you have arthritis in your back, hips, knees, or feet, you may be able to reduce the stress on your joints by wearing the right shoes or by adding insoles to your shoes. Talk to your doctor or physical therapist about the footwear that would be best for you.

Use medicine and heat or cold

One Woman’s Story:

A woman

Bev, 76

“Gardening books and magazines always have wonderful ideas and innovations that you can use. For instance, I’ve cut off sections of the rubber insulation that is used to cover water pipes and slipped them over any of the garden tools that I’m going to use, because it gives me a little more cushion and a little extra width for my tools.”-Bev

Read more about Bev and how she learned to cope with arthritis.

Coping and support

Living with arthritis can be stressful. At times you
may feel overwhelmed, tired, and angry. And you may worry about what your life
may be like as your condition gets worse. These feelings are normal. But there
are a lot of ways to cope with arthritis. For example, ask for help when you
need it, keep a positive attitude, and join a support group.

If
you are caring for someone who has arthritis, be sure to take time to care for
yourself and find ways to manage stress. Being a caregiver isn’t easy. But it
can be rewarding, especially when you know that your care makes a positive
difference in someone’s life.

Medications

Medicine can help reduce your
symptoms of
osteoarthritis and allow you to do
your daily activities.

The goal of medicine is to:

  • Get rid of pain and have few side effects.
  • Keep
    your joints working and moving well. If pain keeps you from moving your joints,
    it can cause the ligaments, tendons, and muscles that move your joints to
    shorten and become tight and weak.

The type of medicine depends on how bad your pain
is. For instance:

  • For mild to moderate pain,
    you can try over-the-counter pain medicine, such as
    acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen.
  • For moderate to severe pain, you
    may need stronger pain medicine such as
    opioids.

Medicine choices

Medicines used to treat arthritis
include:

  • Acetaminophen to
    help relieve pain.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce pain,
    swelling, and
    fever.
  • Tramadol to help relieve pain.
  • Steroid shots in the joint
    to reduce swelling.
  • Some antidepressants, such as duloxetine, to help relieve pain.
  • Opioids to relieve moderate to severe pain.

Medicine that you put on your skin (topical)
may relieve pain for a short time.footnote 3 These include topical NSAIDs,
capsaicin, and pain-relieving creams.

What to think about

Before you take medicine

Here are a few things to think about:

  • Medicine doesn’t cure arthritis
    or slow the time it takes for
    cartilage to break down. But it can help reduce pain
    and stiffness, which can make it easier for you to move.
  • Medicine should be used along with other
    treatments, such as exercise and physical therapy, to help keep your joints
    working and moving well.
  • If you have
    certain health problems, you may not be able to take some kinds of pain
    medicine. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have a history of bleeding in your
    stomach or another part of your digestive tract. And tell your doctor if you
    have a stomach
    ulcer, kidney problems, or
    heart failure, or if you take a blood-thinner
    medicine.

Effects of medicines

Medicines that work for some people don’t work for others. Be
sure to let your doctor know if the medicine you’re taking doesn’t help. You
may need to try several kinds of medicines to find one that works for
you.

Be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the label.

Here are a few things to think
about:

  • The medicine you take may cause
    side effects. Your doctor may suggest that you first try
    acetaminophen, because it has
    fewer side effects than any
    other pain medicine used for
    arthritis.
  • Most studies suggest that
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work
    better than acetaminophen for arthritis. But for some people, acetaminophen may
    work as well as NSAIDs for mild to moderate joint pain. And studies show that
    acetaminophen is better than no treatment.footnote 4
  • If you can’t take NSAIDs,
    and if other treatments haven’t worked, your doctor may prescribe
    opioids. When taken as prescribed, they can be a safe
    and effective way to relieve pain.
  • Because you’ll likely take medicine for a long
    time, you’ll need to see your doctor for regular checkups to look for any side
    effects that may develop from long-term use. He or she may prescribe medicine
    that can help prevent stomach ulcers, which may develop when you take pain
    medicine every day.

Surgery

In most cases, people can manage their
osteoarthritis symptoms with medicine and lifestyle
changes. But surgery may be an option
if:

  • You have very bad pain.
  • You have lost a lot
    of
    cartilage.
  • You have tried medicine and
    other treatments, but they haven’t helped.
  • Your overall health is
    good.

One Man’s Story:

A man

Steve, 55

“I wasn’t sure about having surgery
since I was so young. I had heard that an artificial hip could give out in 10
to 20 years … But when the medicine I was taking stopped working, I figured
I had gone as far as I could go with this, and decided to go ahead with the
surgery … It’s a strange feeling to be able to walk without a limp and to
walk up and down stairs without grabbing on to the railing.”-Steve

Read more about Steve and how he learned to cope with arthritis.

Surgery choices

Types of surgery for arthritis
include:

  • Arthrodesis. This joins (fuses)
    two bones in a damaged joint so that the joint
    won’t bend. Doctors may use it to treat
    arthritis of the spine, ankles, hands, and feet. In rare
    cases, it’s used to treat the knees and hips.
  • Arthroscopy. This may be used to smooth a rough joint surface or remove loose cartilage or bone fragments. In some people it may help relieve pain for a short time and allow the joint to move better.
  • Hip resurfacing surgery. This is most often done in younger, more active people
    who have pain and disability caused by a badly
    damaged hip.
  • Joint replacement. This is done when other treatments haven’t worked
    and damage to the joint can be seen on X-rays.
    It involves surgery to replace the ends of bones in a damaged joint.
    The surgery creates new joint surfaces. The joints that are replaced most often are the hip, knee, and shoulder. But other joints such as the elbow and the ankle can also be replaced.

  • Osteotomy. This is done to correct certain
    defects in the hip and knee. In most cases, it’s done in active people younger
    than 60 who want to delay surgery to replace a hip
    or knee.

Small joint surgery. Surgery is more common on the larger joints, such as the hip and the knee. But if pain in the small joints of the hands or feet is so bad that the person can’t use those joints, surgery may help.

A newer procedure for arthritis of the knee
uses a small cup shaped like a “C.” It’s placed in the joint space of the inner
knee and acts as a cushion for the joint. It may help delay surgery to replace
the knee.

What to think about

Before deciding to have surgery

If you’re in poor health or have certain health problems, you may not be able to have surgery. Your doctor can help you decide if surgery is right for you.

Here are some things to think about if you’re
thinking about surgery:

  • After surgery, most people are
    able to go back to doing their daily tasks and sports with less pain.
  • You will need several months of physical therapy to
    get the best use of your joint.
  • Replacement
    joints
    typically last 10 to 20 years. You may need
    another surgery if the new joint
    wears out.
  • If you have already lost a lot of your strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and ability to be active before you have surgery, then after the surgery you might have a harder time returning to your normal activities.

If you decide to have surgery

In the days or weeks before your surgery, talk to your doctor about what you need to do to get ready for your return home. For example, you may need to arrange for someone to drive you home and to help
you after your surgery. Or you may need to make changes to your home, such as removing small rugs, to help you move around.

Other Treatment

Many people use some form of complementary medicine to treat certain health problems, including osteoarthritis. These treatments are often used along with standard care to help relieve their
arthritis symptoms.

Some of these treatments may help you move more easily and deal with the stress and pain of arthritis. But in some cases, not much is known about how safe they are or how well they may work.

Be sure to tell your doctor if you’re using a complementary therapy or if you’re thinking about trying one. He or she can discuss the possible benefits and potential side effects of these treatments and whether any of these treatments may interfere with your standard care. For example, some diet supplements and herbal medicines may cause problems if you take them with another medicine.

Complementary medicine

  • Dietary supplements to try to relieve pain and stiffness. Examples include:
  • Acupuncture. Acupuncture involves putting very tiny needles into
    your skin at certain places on your body to try to relieve pain.
  • Mind and body practices, such as
    yoga,
    tai chi, and qi gong, can help reduce stress and relax your mind
    and muscles.

Other treatments to
consider

  • Taping uses tape that sticks to the knee to help keep the kneecap in
    place and relieve pain. You can do taping at home. But
    first have your doctor or physical therapist show you the right way to put it
    on.
  • Braces can
    help shift weight off the part of your knee
    that hurts. It’s not clear how well
    these work, but there isn’t a lot of risk in
    trying them.
  • Capsaicin is a cream that you
    put on your skin for pain relief.
  • Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy uses magnets to produce an electrical pulse that may help cartilage grow.
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, or TENS, uses a mild electrical
    current to reduce pain.

One Woman’s Story:

A woman

Bev, 76

“After I have a massage and acupuncture, I feel
like a new person. I encourage people to find out what treatments others have
tried and what things have worked for them. I’m a believer in other people’s
ideas. Obviously, what works for one person may not work for another, but
unless you try it, you’ll never know if it’ll help.”-Bev

Read more about Bev and how she learned to cope with arthritis.

What to think about

There are many
treatments for arthritis, but what works for someone else may not work for you.
You may need to try several different treatments to find what works for
you.

Experts are testing new
medicines and methods that they hope will one day help prevent, reduce, or
repair cartilage damage. For example, they’re looking at cartilage transplants
and the use of stem cells to grow new cartilage. So far, therapies to repair
cartilage have only been studied in younger people with small, well-defined
holes in their knee cartilage. This isn’t a common problem for most older
adults who have arthritis of the knee.

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

American College of Rheumatology
www.rheumatology.org

Arthritis Foundation (U.S.)
www.arthritis.org

Related Information

References

Citations

  1. Messier SP, et al. (2005). Weight loss reduces knee-joint loads in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 52(7): 2026-2032.
  2. Stitik TP, et al. (2010). Osteoarthritis. In WR Frontera et al., eds., DeLisa’s Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice, 5th ed., vol. 1, pp. 781-809. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
  3. Lozada CJ (2013). Treatment of osteoarthritis. In GS Firestein et al., eds., Kelley’s Textbook of Rheumatology 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1646-1659. Philadelphia: Saunders.
  4. Towheed TE, et al. (2006). Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1). Oxford: Update Software.

Other Works Consulted

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  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2017). Management of osteoarthritis of the hip evidence-based clinical practice guideline. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
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Credits

ByHealthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer Anne C. Poinier, MD – Internal Medicine
Adam Husney, MD – Family Medicine
E. Gregory Thompson, MD – Internal Medicine
Martin J. Gabica, MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito, MD – Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Stanford M. Shoor, MD – Rheumatology

Current as ofOctober 10, 2017