Topic Overview

What is Reye syndrome?

Reye syndrome is a rare but
serious disease that most often affects children ages 6 to 12 years old. It can
cause brain swelling and liver damage. It may be related to using
aspirin to treat viral infections.

Reye
syndrome can lead to brain damage, liver damage, and death. But if the disease
is found and treated early, most children recover from Reye syndrome in a
few weeks and have no lasting problems.

What causes Reye syndrome?

Experts don’t know what
causes Reye syndrome. It often happens in children who have recently had
chickenpox or
the flu and who took medicines that contain
aspirin.

Reye syndrome cannot spread from child to child.

What are the symptoms?

Reye syndrome often starts
when a child is recovering from a viral illness, such as the flu or
chickenpox. Symptoms usually
appear 3 to 7 days after the viral illness starts. They may develop over
several hours to a day or two.

The first symptoms may
include:

  • Sudden retching or vomiting.
  • Lack
    of energy and loss of interest in things.
  • Strange behavior, such as
    staring, irritability, personality changes, and slurred
    speech.
  • Sleepiness.

As liver damage and brain damage get worse, other symptoms may develop,
including:

  • Confusion. Your child may not know where he
    or she is, recognize family or friends, or be able to answer simple questions.
  • Fast, deep breathing (hyperventilation).
  • Violent behavior, such
    as hitting others without reason.
  • Seizures and
    coma.

If Reye syndrome is not treated quickly, it can cause
death.

If your child has symptoms of Reye syndrome, get medical care right away, even if your child has not had a recent viral illness or
taken aspirin. Early treatment makes full
recovery more likely.

How is Reye syndrome diagnosed?

Your doctor will
do a physical exam and ask questions about your child’s symptoms, recent aspirin use, and past health problems.

Your child may need tests such as blood and urine
tests, a
liver biopsy, a
CT scan of the head, and a
lumbar puncture (spinal tap).

How is it treated?

Reye syndrome is always treated
in a hospital, often in the intensive care unit (ICU). The goal is to stop damage to the
brain and liver and to prevent other problems. While in the hospital, your child will receive medicines to reduce brain swelling and will get other supportive care.

Reye syndrome can be scary for you and your child.
Remember that most children recover with no problems. To help yourself and your
child feel better:

  • Talk with your doctor and the hospital staff
    about any questions or concerns you have about your child’s
    care.
  • Stay with your child, or visit often if you are not allowed to
    stay with your child in the ICU.
  • Let your child have some favorite
    toys or belongings while in the hospital. This will help your child feel more
    secure.

Can Reye syndrome be prevented?

The most important
step you can take to prevent Reye syndrome is to not give aspirin or any product that contains aspirin to anyone younger than age 20 unless a doctor has prescribed it.

Always read the label before giving medicine to your child. Aspirin is found in
many
over-the-counter medicines, including ones you might not expect it to be in, such as Pepto-Bismol, Kaopectate, and Alka-Seltzer. Aspirin is also called:

  • Acetyl salicylate.
  • Acetylsalicylic acid.
  • Salicylic acid.
  • Salicylate or subsalicylate.

Some childhood health problems may require treatment with aspirin. In these cases, make sure you have clear guidance from your doctor about giving aspirin to your child. If your child is taking aspirin and gets chickenpox or the
flu, call your doctor right away.

Frequently Asked Questions

Learning about Reye syndrome:

Other Places To Get Help

Organization

HealthyChildren.org (U.S.)
www.healthychildren.org

References

Other Works Consulted

  • Brown LW (2006). Reye syndrome. In FD Burg et al., eds., Current Pediatric Therapy, 18th ed., pp. 417-420. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
  • Hurwitz ES (2009). Reye syndrome. In RD Feigin et al., eds., Feigin and Cherry’s Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 6th ed., vol. 1, pp. 693-694. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

Credits

ByHealthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer John Pope, MD – Pediatrics

Current as ofMay 4, 2017

Current as of:
May 4, 2017