Oral cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in any part of the mouth or lips. Most oral cancers start in the lining of the lips or mouth where you have thin, flat cells called squamous cells.
This type of cancer may also be called oral cavity cancer or oropharyngeal cancer.
Risk factors (things that increase your risk) for oral cancer include smoking (or using smokeless tobacco) and heavy alcohol use. Other risk factors are being male, using marijuana, or having human papillomavirus (HPV). For cancers of the lip, exposure over a long period of time to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or from tanning beds increases risk.
Symptoms for oral cancer include sores or lumps on the lips or in your mouth. Talk with your doctor if you have any of these signs:
A sore on your lip or in your mouth that bleeds easily and
does not heal
A lump or thickening on your lips, gums, cheek, or in your mouth
A white or red patch on your gums, your tongue, tonsils, or
the lining of your mouth
A sore throat or a feeling that something
is caught in your throat
Unexplained difficulty chewing,
swallowing, speaking, or moving your jaw or tongue
Numbness or pain in your tongue or
other areas of your lips or mouth
Swelling in your jaw that makes your
teeth loose or your dentures fit poorly
Changes in your voice
Dry mouth (xerostomia)
Your dentist or doctor may look closely at your lips, mouth, or throat to check for signs of oral cancer. Other tests may be needed if there are possible signs of cancer, such as a biopsy, an X-ray, or an MRI.
Oral cancer is usually treated with surgery and radiation therapy. Your treatment will depend on the stage of your cancer and your other health factors. If the cancer is advanced, other treatments may be used. You may get chemotherapy. Or chemotherapy and targeted therapy may be used together.
You can find more information about oral cancer at the National Cancer Institute website www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/oral.
Researchers are studying how people can make changes in their lifestyles to reduce their risk for cancer. One lifestyle change that may reduce the risk for oral cancer is eating more fruits and fiber-rich vegetables.
Hyperfractionated radiation therapy, which is giving the total dose of radiation therapy in many small treatments, often more than one a day.
Sometimes a clinical trial offers the best treatment choice. Your medical team will let you know if there is a clinical trial that might be good for you. For more information, see www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials or http://clinicaltrials.gov.
Having cancer can change your life in many ways. For support in managing these changes, see the topic
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National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2012). Head and neck cancers. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, version 1.2012. Available online: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/PDF/head-and-neck.pdf.
ByHealthwise Staff Primary Medical ReviewerAdam Husney, MD – Family Medicine E. Gregory Thompson, MD – Internal Medicine Kathleen Romito, MD – Family Medicine Specialist Medical ReviewerJimmy Ruiz, MD – Hematology, Oncology