Test Overview

You can buy
dipstick test kits without a prescription. You use them at home to
check for
urinary tract infections (UTIs). Talk to your doctor
about using a test kit.

The
urinary tract consists of the kidneys, bladder,
ureters, and
urethra. Urine in the bladder is normally sterile. This means it
does not contain any bacteria or other germs (such as
fungi). But bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra.

UTIs are more common in women and
girls than in men. This may be partly because the female urethra is shorter and
closer to the
anus. This allows bacteria from the intestines to
come into contact more easily with the urethra. Men also have an antibacterial substance in their
prostate gland that reduces their risk.

The dipstick test kit contains specially treated plastic strips called dipsticks. You hold them in your urine stream or dip them in a sample of your
urine. The strips test for a substance (called nitrite) produced by most
UTIs. Certain types of strips also test for white blood
cells (leukocytes). Some types of dipsticks can test for both nitrite and
leukocytes. But most types test for only one or the other. An area on the end
of the strip changes color if you have an infection.

Most UTIs are easy to cure with
antibiotics. But an untreated infection may spread to
the kidneys and cause a more serious problem. If you use a home test kit, make
sure that your doctor knows about any abnormal test results. This will help make sure that a serious
problem is not missed.

Why It Is Done

A self-test for urinary tract infection (UTI) is done under the care of your doctor to:

  • Find a UTI,
    especially in people who have UTIs often. Certain conditions increase the
    risk for having a UTI. Your risk is higher if you are pregnant, have
    diabetes, or have a condition that affects urine flow, such as
    kidney stones,
    stroke, or a spinal cord injury. In adults, a UTI
    usually causes symptoms such as pain or burning during urination, frequent
    urination, or the sudden and frequent urge to urinate. But older adults and
    young children with UTIs may not have these symptoms. For this reason, experts suggest that older adults and children see a doctor for a possible
    UTI.
  • Check how well treatment of a UTI is working. If you are being
    treated for a UTI, you can test your urine at home to see if the
    antibiotics have cured the infection.
  • Test young children who have
    frequent bladder infections but may not be able to report their symptoms. A
    home test for these children is also done under a doctor’s care.

How To Prepare

Equipment

Most home test kits for urinary tract
infections (UTIs) were first made for use in a doctor’s office or lab. Some drugstores stock these test kits or can order them for you
without a prescription. Many types of home test kits can be ordered over the
Internet.

A UTI test kit usually contains a clean collection cup,
special plastic dipsticks, and instructions that explain how to perform the
test. You will need a clock that measures time in seconds. You will also need wipes or towelettes to clean your genital area before
you collect a urine sample.

General instructions

For any home test, you should
follow some general steps:

  • Check the expiration date on the package. Do not use a test kit after its expiration date. The chemicals in the kit may
    not work as they should after that date.
  • Store the test kits as directed.
    Many kits need to be stored in a refrigerator or other cool
    place.
  • Carefully read the instructions that come with your test before you do the test. Look for any special steps you need to take to prepare for the test. For example, do you need to avoid certain foods? Do you need to limit your
    physical activity?
  • Follow the directions exactly. Do all the steps
    in order. Don’t skip any of them.
  • If a step in the test needs
    to be timed, use a clock. Do not guess at the timing. Guessing could change
    your results.
  • If you are
    color-blind or have trouble telling one color from
    another, have someone else read the test results for you. Most test results
    depend on being able to see color changes on a test strip.
  • Write
    down the results of the test so you can talk to your doctor about them.

How It Is Done

Do not urinate for at least 4 hours
before testing. A first morning urine sample (that has collected in the bladder
overnight) provides the most accurate test results.

Test the urine
within 15 minutes after you collect the urine sample. Or you can place the dipstick in the
urine stream as you urinate.

Use a clean-catch midstream
urine sample for testing:

  • Wash your hands to make sure they are clean
    before you collect the urine.
  • If the collection cup has a lid,
    remove it carefully. Set it down with the inner surface up. Do not touch the inside of the cup with your fingers.
  • Clean the area
    around your genitals.

    • For men: Pull back the foreskin, if you have one. Clean the head of the penis thoroughly. Use medicated towelettes, wipes,
      or swabs.
    • For women: Spread open the folds of skin around the vagina with one hand. Then use your other hand to clean the area
      around the vagina and urethra thoroughly. Use medicated towelettes or swabs.
      Wipe the area from front to back to avoid spreading bacteria from the anus to the urethra.
  • Start to urinate into the toilet or urinal. Women should keep holding apart the folds of skin around the vagina while
    they urinate.
  • After the urine has flowed for several seconds, place
    the collection cup into the stream. Collect about 2 fl oz (60 mL) of this “midstream” urine without stopping the flow.
  • Do not touch the
    rim of the cup to your genital area. And don’t get toilet paper,
    pubic hair, stool (feces), menstrual blood, or other foreign matter in the
    urine sample.

Test the urine sample by following the directions included
in the test kit package.

How It Feels

Collecting a urine sample is not painful.

Risks

Collecting a urine sample does not cause problems. If you keep having symptoms, or if your home test is
positive and you don’t follow up with your doctor, you may have a higher chance of problems from a urinary tract infection (UTI)

Results

Dipstick test kits are used to check for
urinary tract infections (UTIs) at home. Results are
ready right away.

Home test for urinary tract infections
Normal:

Nitrite dipstick test:

No nitrite is found in the urine. Normal
results are called negative.

Leukocyte dipstick test:

No white blood cells (leukocytes) are found
in the urine. Normal results are called negative.

Abnormal:

Nitrite dipstick test:

Nitrite is found in the urine. These results
are called positive.

Leukocyte dipstick test:

White blood cells (leukocytes) are found in
the urine. These results are called positive.

Call your doctor if the test result is positive.

What Affects the Test

You may not be able to have the test, or the results may not be helpful, if:

  • You did not collect the urine sample at least 4 hours after your last urination.

What To Think About

  • A home test for a urinary tract infection
    (UTI) should be done under the direction of your doctor. This is so abnormal test
    results caused by a problem other than a UTI will not be missed. Although a
    home test kit may find that you have a UTI, it can’t tell you where the infection is located. The infection may be in the kidneys,
    ureters, bladder, or urethra, or, in men, in the
    prostate gland. More tests may be needed to
    find the location and cause.
  • Positive test results don’t
    always mean that you have an infection. If you have a positive test result, be sure to talk to your doctor.
  • Home test kits are not 100% accurate. If you still have symptoms of a UTI even though the test results
    show that you don’t have an infection (negative result), tell your doctor.
    Painful urination can be caused by other problems, such as a
    vaginal yeast infection or
    sexually transmitted infection. Frequent UTIs can be a symptom of a serious problem, such as kidney stones, a
    tumor, or infection of the prostate gland. Do not use a home test as a
    substitute for regular medical checkups.
  • Some doctors may order
    another UTI test through a lab before they will prescribe antibiotics to treat
    an infection found using a home test kit.
  • Do not use medicine left
    over from treating another infection to treat a new UTI. And if your doctor
    gives you antibiotics for a UTI, be sure to take all of the medicine in
    your prescription. Take it all, even if your symptoms go away before it is
    gone. A UTI can come back or get worse if you do not take the full course of
    antibiotics.
  • Many types of home test kits can be ordered over the
    Internet. Just search for the type of test or the name of the
    manufacturer.
  • Some home test kits may come with cranberry or
    blueberry capsules or other medicine for use after the test. Any medicines that
    are included in your kit are not a substitute for follow-up with your
    doctor.

References

Other Works Consulted

  • Pagana KD, Pagana TJ (2010). Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.

Credits

ByHealthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD – Internal Medicine
Adam Husney, MD – Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Avery L. Seifert, MD – Urology

Current as ofMay 5, 2017