Top of the page Food Allergies Topic OverviewIs this topic for you? This topic has general
information about food allergies. If you would like more specific information
about peanut allergy, see the topic
Peanut Allergy. What is a food allergy? When you have a food
allergy, your body thinks certain foods are trying to harm you. Your body
fights back by setting off an
allergic reaction. In most cases, the symptoms are
mild—a rash or an upset stomach. A mild reaction is no fun, but
it isn’t dangerous. A serious reaction can be deadly. But quick treatment can
stop a dangerous reaction. Allergies tend to run in families. You
are more likely to have a food allergy if other people in your family have
allergies like hay fever, asthma, or eczema (atopic dermatitis). Food allergies are more common in children
than in adults. Children sometimes outgrow their food
allergies, especially allergies to milk, eggs, or soy. But if you develop a food allergy as an adult, you will most likely
have it for life. Food allergy versus food intolerance Food intolerances are much more common than food allergies. True food allergies are a reaction to food or food additives by your body’s immune system.
Many people think they have a food allergy, but in fact they have a food intolerance. Food intolerance is much more common.
It can cause some of the same symptoms as a mild food allergy, like an upset stomach. But a food intolerance does
not cause an allergic reaction. A food intolerance can make you feel bad, but it is not dangerous. A serious food
allergy can be dangerous.
What are the symptoms? Food allergies can cause
many different symptoms. They can range from mild to serious. If you eat a food
you are allergic to: Your mouth may tingle, and your lips may
swell as you start to eat the food. You may have a stuffy nose,
wheeze, or be short of breath when the allergens reach your mouth and lungs. You may have cramps, an upset stomach, or
diarrhea as the food is digested. You may feel dizzy or lightheaded if your blood pressure drops as the allergens circulate through your bloodstream.
You may have itchy skin with red, raised bumps called
hives as the allergens reach your skin. Kids usually have the same symptoms as adults. But
sometimes a small child just cries a lot, vomits, has diarrhea, or does not
grow as expected. If your child has these symptoms, see your doctor. Some people have symptoms after eating even a tiny bit of a problem food.
As a rule, the sooner the reaction begins, the worse it will be.
The most severe reaction is called
anaphylaxis (say “ANN-uh-fuh-LAK-suss”). It affects
your whole body. Anaphylaxis can start within a few minutes to a few hours after you eat the
food. And the symptoms can go away and come back hours later. If you have
anaphylaxis: Your throat and tongue may swell quickly.
You may suddenly start wheezing or have trouble
breathing. You may feel sick to your stomach or vomit.
You may feel faint or pass out.Anaphylaxis can be deadly. If you have (or see someone
having) any of these symptoms, call 911 right away. What foods most often cause a food allergy? A few
foods cause most allergies. The protein in a food that causes an allergy is called a food
allergen. Milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, and soy cause
most problems in children. Milk, peanuts, tree nuts,
fish, and shellfish cause most problems in adults. If you are allergic to one food, you may also be allergic
to other foods like it. So if you are allergic to shrimp, you may also be
allergic to lobster or crab. How is a food allergy diagnosed? Your doctor will
ask questions about your medical history and any family food allergies. And he
or she will do a physical exam. Your doctor will also ask what symptoms you
have. He or she may want you to write down everything you eat and any reactions
you have. Your doctor will consider other possibilities that could be confused with food allergies, such as a food intolerance. Because food allergies can be confused with other problems, it is important for your doctor to do a test to confirm that you have a food allergy. Your doctor may first start out with either skin testing or a blood test to determine what you are allergic to. But an oral food challenge is the best way to diagnose a food allergy. In an oral food challenge, you will eat a variety of foods that may or may not cause an allergic reaction. Your doctor
watches to see if and when a reaction occurs. A skin prick test can help to find out which foods will cause a reaction. The doctor will put a little bit of liquid
on your skin and then prick your skin. The liquid has some of the possible food
allergen in it. If your skin swells up like a mosquito bite, your doctor knows
that you are allergic to that food. Your doctor may also do blood tests to look for
the chemicals in your blood that cause an allergic reaction. How is it treated? The best treatment
is to never eat the foods you are allergic to. Learn to read food labels and
spot other names for problem foods. For example, milk may be listed as
“caseinate,” wheat as “gluten,” and peanuts as “hydrolyzed vegetable protein.”
When you eat out or at other people’s houses, ask about the foods you are
served. If you have a history of severe food allergies, your
doctor will prescribe
epinephrine (say “eh-puh-NEH-fren”). An epinephrine shot can slow down or stop an allergic reaction.
Your doctor can teach you how to give yourself the shot if you need it. You can
have symptoms again even after you give yourself a shot. So go to the emergency
room every time you have a severe reaction. You will need to be watched for
several hours after the reaction. If you have had a serious
reaction in the past, your chance of having another one is high. Be
prepared. Keep epinephrine with you at all times.
Wear a
medical alert bracelet to let others know about your food allergy.
Check the expiration date on the epinephrine. Replace it as needed.If your child has a food allergy, what else should you think about? Talk to your child’s teachers and caregivers. They should
know how to keep problem foods away from your child. Teach them what to do if
your child eats one of these foods by mistake. If your child has
ever had a severe reaction, keep epinephrine nearby at all times. Some kids
carry it in a fanny pack. Have your child wear a medical alert bracelet.
Teach all caregivers to act quickly. They should: Know the signs of a severe
reaction. Know how to give an epinephrine shot. Call
911 right away.Frequently Asked Questions Learning about food allergies: What is a food allergy? What causes a food allergy? What are the symptoms of a food allergy? What increases my risk of getting a food allergy? What is the difference between a food allergy and a food intolerance? Being diagnosed: When should I call my doctor? How is a food allergy diagnosed?Getting treatment: How is a food allergy treated? What medicines are used for a food allergy? Ongoing concerns: Can a food allergy be prevented? How do I give myself an epinephrine shot? How do I give a child an epinephrine shot?Health ToolsHealth Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
Actionsets are designed to help people take an active role in managing a health condition.
Allergies in Children: Giving an Epinephrine Shot to a Child Allergies: Giving Yourself an Epinephrine ShotCauseFood allergies
occur when the body’s immune system overreacts to substances in food you have
eaten, triggering an
allergic reaction. Food allergies are more common in
young children than in adults. Milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, and soy cause
most problems in children. Some babies are so sensitive to these
foods that if the offending food is eaten by the mother, drinking her breast
milk can cause a reaction. Most children outgrow allergies to eggs, milk,
wheat, and soy. Peanuts, tree
nuts, fish, and shellfish cause most of the allergic reactions in teens and
adults. Adults typically remain allergic to the food for life.Food allergies are most common in people who are
atopic, meaning they have an inherited tendency to
have allergic conditions. These people are more likely to have asthma, various
allergies, and a skin condition called
atopic dermatitis. Asthma can make the reaction to a food more severe. If you are highly
sensitive to a certain food, you may have an allergic reaction simply by
being near where the food was prepared or served. Celiac disease
is an abnormal immune system reaction to gluten, a protein found in grains like wheat and rye. It damages the small intestine so that it can’t do a good job of absorbing nutrients from your food. For more information, see the topic
Celiac Disease. Cross-reactivity Many people, but not all people, are allergic to foods
that are similar or somehow related. This is called cross-reactivity. For
example, if you are allergic to shrimp, you may also be allergic to other
shellfish, like crab or lobster. If you are allergic to peanuts, you may be
allergic to other members of the legume family, such as peas and beans. You don’t need to stop eating a cross-reactive food if you show no signs of an allergic reaction to it. Oral allergy syndrome is a type of
cross-reactivity. With this syndrome, people who have pollen allergies (such as a
grass allergy) may develop itching, redness, and swelling of the lips and mouth
when they eat fruits or vegetables that contain a protein that reacts with the
pollen. These symptoms usually resolve quickly and do not involve other parts
of the body. Oral allergy syndrome usually involves a reaction to
fresh fruits and raw vegetables: If you are allergic to ragweed, your mouth may itch when you eat melons, especially cantaloupe. If you are allergic to birch pollen, you may react to apple peels.A growing number of people, especially health care
workers, are discovering that they have an allergy to
latex. Latex is the natural sap of the rubber tree. It
is used in making surgical gloves, condoms, balloons, and other products. If
you have a latex allergy, you may also have allergies to bananas, avocados,
kiwi, and chestnuts. Other concerns Some people have allergic reactions to food after they exercise. This is called exercise-induced food allergy. As a person’s body temperature rises with exercise, symptoms such as itching and lightheadedness start, sometimes leading to hives and even anaphylaxis, which can be deadly. To avoid exercise-induced food allergy, do not eat for a few hours before you exercise or right after exercising.SymptomsSymptoms of
food allergy can affect many parts of your body,
including your: Digestive system. Symptoms include stomach cramps,
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, itching in the mouth and throat, and rectal
bleeding (rare in adults). These symptoms occur more often in children
than in adults. Skin. Symptoms include
hives or welts, swelling, itching, redness, and atopic dermatitis. Skin reactions are common in
children. Respiratory system. Symptoms include coughing;
wheezing; an itchy, stuffy, runny nose; sneezing; and trouble
breathing.Children usually have the same symptoms as adults.
Symptoms of milk or soy allergies in children may include
eczema. Sometimes the
only symptoms are extreme crying,
vomiting, blood in the stool, diarrhea, constipation, or poor growth. Symptoms vary from mild to life-threatening and can appear
from within minutes to days of eating a food. The most severe reaction is
anaphylaxis, which affects many body systems and can be deadly.
Anaphylaxis can start within a few minutes to a few hours after you eat the
food. And the symptoms can go away and come back hours later. Common triggers for anaphylaxis are peanuts, nuts,
and seafood. In children, peanuts cause anaphylaxis more often than other
foods. Aspirin, exercise,
or alcohol can increase the risk for anaphylaxis. There are many
other conditions with similar symptoms, such as
food poisoning and
inflammatory bowel disease.What HappensThe first time you eat a food
that triggers an
allergic reaction, your body’s immune system
recognizes the food as a foreign substance (allergen). Your
body reacts by developing
antibodies against the food. When you eat the
offending food again, the antibodies attack the allergen, releasing histamine
and other chemicals that cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction. To learn more, see the Symptoms and Treatment Overview sections of this topic. What Increases Your RiskYou have a greater chance of
developing
food allergies if you: Have a family history of allergy. If both of your parents have allergies, you are more likely to have allergies. Have another allergic condition such as
atopic dermatitis or
asthma. Are young. Infants and children
have more food allergies than adults. Have a medical condition that
makes it easier for
allergens to pass through the walls of the stomach and
intestines and enter the bloodstream. These conditions include gastrointestinal
disease, malnutrition, prematurity, and diseases that
impair the immune system, such as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).You have a greater risk for a life-threatening allergic
reaction (anaphylaxis) from food allergy if you: Have
asthma. Develop allergy symptoms within
minutes of eating the food.If you or your child has a severe food allergy, always
carry epinephrine and know how to use it. You should also
wear a medical alert bracelet at all times. Being prepared to immediately deal
with a severe allergic reaction reduces the risk of death.When To Call a DoctorGive an epinephrine shot if: You think you are having a severe allergic reaction. You have symptoms in more than one body area, such as mild nausea and an itchy mouth.After giving an epinephrine shot call 911, even if you feel better. Call 911 if you have: Rapid swelling of the throat or
tongue Trouble breathing, wheezing, or deep cough; a pale face
or blue lips or earlobes Feeling faint Signs of shock, including:
Lightheadedness or a feeling that you are
about to pass out Restlessness, confusion, or a sense of impending
doom Moist, cool skin, or possibly profuse
sweating Weakness, thirst, nausea, or vomiting Been given an epinephrine shot, even if you feel better. If you witness a severe allergic reaction and the person
becomes unconscious, call 911 or other emergency services immediately. If your food allergy
symptoms are getting worse, call your doctor. It is important to know which
foods are to blame so that you can avoid them. Watchful waiting If your
food allergy symptoms do not get worse or are not too
severe or bothersome, you can try eliminating suspect foods from your diet to
see whether symptoms disappear. Who to see The following health professionals may evaluate and
treat mild
food allergies: Family medicine physician Pediatrician Internist Nurse practitioner Physician assistantAn
allergy specialist may be needed when: You need to identify the foods that trigger
allergic reactions. Your work or school
performance or quality of life is affected because of allergy symptoms or
medicine side effects. You have other medical conditions, such as
recurrent
asthma.You may also be referred to other specialists, such as
a: Dermatologist, to treat allergic skin
problems. Pulmonary specialist, when moderate or
severe asthma is also present.A
registered dietitian can help you keep a balanced diet
even when you can’t eat some foods. A dietitian can also help
you learn how to avoid hidden
allergens in foods and give you ideas about how to
make substitutions in recipes. To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.Exams and TestsTo diagnose a
food allergy, your doctor will start with a
medical history and a physical exam. Your doctor may
ask: What symptoms you have. If your family has any food allergies. How soon the symptoms began after eating food. If over-the-counter medicines helped. If other people also got sick. How the food was prepared. If you ate any other foods.It’s important to find out whether you have a
food allergy or food intolerance. Your doctor may ask you to keep a record of
all the foods you eat and any reactions you have to them. Your doctor will also consider if your reaction could have been caused by things like allergies to medicines or insect stings, food poisoning, irritants in foods, or exposure to skin irritants. Your doctor may ask you
to try an elimination diet, an oral food allergy challenge, or both. In an elimination diet, you avoid eating foods that may be causing an allergic reaction and see if your symptoms go away. If symptoms come back when you eat the food again, your doctor can confirm your food allergy. The elimination diet can last from 2 to 8 weeks. In an oral food allergy challenge, you eat a variety of foods that may or may not cause an allergic reaction. Your doctor
watches to see if and when a reaction occurs. This test
is considered the best way to diagnose a food allergy.After you have been diagnosed with a food allergy, you may also have
allergy tests, such as skin tests or blood tests, to find out which foods you are allergic to. Treatment OverviewThe best treatment for
food allergies is to avoid the food that causes the
allergy. When that isn’t possible, you can use medicines such as
antihistamines for mild reactions and epinephrine for serious reactions. Talk to your doctor about an Anaphylaxis Action Plan.
Start by telling your family, friends, and coworkers that you
have a food allergy, and ask them to help you avoid the food. Read all food
labels, and learn the
other names that may be used for food
allergens. If your baby has a milk or soy allergy, your
doctor may suggest either that you change the formula or that you feed your baby only breast milk.
Specially prepared formulas are available for infants who have soy and milk
allergies. If you
have a severe allergic reaction, your first treatment
may be done in an emergency room or by emergency personnel. You will be given a
shot of
epinephrine to stop the further release of histamine
and to relax the muscles that help you breathe. How to treat a reaction If your doctor has prescribed
epinephrine, always keep it with you. It’s important to give the epinephrine shot right away. Your doctor or pharmacist will teach you how to give yourself a shot if you need it. Be sure to check the expiration
dates on the medicines, and replace the medicines as needed. For step-by-step instructions on how to give the shot, see: Allergies: Giving Yourself an Epinephrine Shot. Allergies in Children: Giving an Epinephrine Shot to a Child. You should also wear a medical alert bracelet or other jewelry that lists your food allergies. You can order
medical alert jewelry through most drugstores or on the Internet. Research for new treatments Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) is being studied as a way to help treat food allergies. Under close supervision, a person takes in small daily doses of a food allergen by mouth or under the tongue. The goal is to try to make the immune system tolerate the allergen so that the body won’t react as badly to it. This is called desensitization. Talk to your doctor if you want to know more about clinical trials for this and other new treatments being studied. Children and food allergies It’s
important to take special care with children who have food allergies. A child
with severe food allergies may have a life-threatening
anaphylactic reaction to even a tiny amount of a food
allergen. Your child should always wear a medical
alert bracelet. Talk to your doctor about an Anaphylaxis Action Plan.
Make sure that all caregivers (school
administrators, teachers, friends, coaches, and babysitters): Know about your child’s food
allergy. Can recognize the symptoms of a food
allergy. Know where the epinephrine shot is kept and how to use it. Know to call
911 immediately.Children may have only mild symptoms in the first few
minutes after they eat the food allergen, but they may have severe symptoms in
10 to 60 minutes. Children always should be observed in a hospital for several
hours after a reaction. Make sure that your child: Always wears a
medical alert bracelet. Always carries epinephrine. Children at risk of severe allergic reactions should keep their epinephrine at school or day care and at home. Older, mature children should be taught to give themselves the shot.Although your child needs to avoid certain foods, he or she still needs to eat healthy foods. A dietitian can tell you which foods are important for your child’s health.PreventionFood allergies
often occur in people who have a family history of asthma,
atopic dermatitis, or allergies to pollen, mold, or
other substances. In most cases, allergies cannot be prevented in people who have a family history of allergic conditions. There isn’t enough proof to recommend that people who are at risk for allergies should avoid common foods that cause allergies like milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, shellfish, and sulphites. Avoiding these foods doesn’t seem to prevent allergies.

If your doctor thinks your baby might be at risk for a peanut allergy, ask him or her about introducing peanut products. There may be a way to prevent peanut allergies.footnote 1 If you are a
woman with a food allergy who is planning on a pregnancy and breastfeeding,
talk to your doctor about what foods to avoid while pregnant or nursing. But if you don’t have food allergies, avoiding certain foods during your pregnancy isn’t recommended as a way to prevent the baby from having food allergies. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all babies be
breastfed for the first year of life or longer.footnote 2 For
babies with family members who have food allergies, ask whether and how to start foods that might cause allergies. Most allergic reactions in children are caused by eggs, milk, wheat, soy, and peanuts. Breastfeeding only for at
least 4 months may help prevent allergies to milk.footnote 3 If
your baby is at high risk for allergies and you can’t breastfeed, try a
hydrolyzed milk formula. The milk protein in hydrolyzed formulas is changed to
try to prevent allergies. There is no proof that giving your baby soy formula instead of cow’s milk formula will prevent a food allergy in children at risk for food allergies.footnote 3 Tobacco smoke can make allergies worse, so it is important to have a smoke-free
environment.Home TreatmentKnowing which foods trigger
food allergies and avoiding those foods is the best
way to prevent
allergic reactions. Unfortunately, food allergens are
often hidden in sauces, ice creams, baked goods, and other items. If you have
food allergies, read food labels carefully. Sometimes
products are recalled when food ingredients are missing from food labels. For a
list of recalled products, see the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Recalls,
Market Withdrawals, and Safety Alerts page at
www.fda.gov/opacom/7alerts.html. Tips for eating out Eating out can be dangerous for
people with severe food allergies. Bring safe substitutes from home. For example,
bring soy milk to have with cereal. Be aware of possible
cross-contamination. For example, an ice cream scoop may have been used for
Rocky Road ice cream, which contains peanuts, and then used for your vanilla
ice cream. Alert the wait staff to the possibility of a severe food
reaction. Carefully question them about ingredients. If they are not sure, ask
to speak to kitchen staff. Always wear
medical alert jewelry that lists your food allergies. Medical alert jewelry can
be ordered through most drugstores or on the Internet. If you or your child has ever had a severe allergic reaction, always carry an epinephrine shot. Allergies: Giving Yourself an Epinephrine Shot Allergies in Children: Giving an Epinephrine Shot to a Child If you are traveling to another country, learn the words
for the foods that trigger your allergy so that you can ask in restaurants and
read food labels. Call airlines, tour operators, and restaurants ahead of time
to explain your food allergy and request safe meals. Prepare your own food when
possible. Discuss your travel plans with your doctor. Medications Medicine is used to treat some
food allergies. For mild allergic
reactions, people often try nonprescription medicines first. You can try
prescription medicines if over-the-counter medicines fail to control allergy
symptoms or if they cause drowsiness or other bothersome side effects. Medicine choices Medicines used to treat a severe
allergic reaction include: Epinephrine.
Epinephrine is given as a shot. It acts quickly to relax the muscles that help you breathe. Sometimes more than one shot is needed if symptoms do not go away. Epinephrine is the medicine used to treat anaphylaxis. Antihistamines. Antihistamines block the action of
histamine during an allergic reaction and help improve symptoms such as itching
and sneezing. Corticosteroids. These medicines help
reduce inflammation.Medicines used to relieve mild
food allergy symptoms include: Antihistamines and corticosteroids for hives,
gastrointestinal symptoms, or sneezing and a runny nose. Bronchodilators for
asthma symptoms. Bronchodilators relax the airways of
the lungs, making it easier to breathe.Other Places To Get HelpOrganizations
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and
Immunology www.aaaai.org
Food Allergy Research and Education (U.S.) www.foodallergy.org Related InformationAllergic Reaction Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) Cow’s Milk Sensitivity in Babies Lactose Intolerance Peanut Allergy Rash, Age 11 and Younger Rash, Age 12 and Older SwellingReferencesCitations Togias A, et al. (2017). Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored expert panel. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 139(1):29–44. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.010. Accessed August 23, 2017. American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3): e827–e841. Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/3/e827.full. Greer FR, et al. (2008). Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: The role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics, 121(1): 183–191. Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/1/183.full. Other Works Consulted American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (2010). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: Report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 126(6): S1–S58. Available online: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/foodallergy/clinical/Pages/default.aspx. Branum AM, Lukacs SL (2008). Food allergy among U.S. children: Trends in prevalence and hospitalizations. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, No. 10. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.pdf. Drugs for allergic disorders (2010). Treatment Guidelines From The Medical Letter, 8(90): 9–18. Greenhawt M (2013). Food allergies. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, section 3, chap. 8. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker. Katz DL, Friedman RSC (2008). Food allergy and intolerance. In Nutrition in Clinical Practice, pp. 275–280. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Longo G, et al (2013). IgE-mediated food allergy in children. Lancet, 382(9905): 1656–1664. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60309-8. Accessed November 26, 2013. Sampson H, et al. (2014). Food allergy: A practice parameter update—2014. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology, 134(5): 1016. http://www.aaaai.org/Aaaai/media/MediaLibrary/PDF%20Documents/Practice%20and%20Parameters/Food-Allergy-A-Practice-Parameter-Update-2014.pdf. Accessed February 19, 2015. Sampson HA (2003). Adverse reactions to foods. In NF Adkinson et al., eds., Middleton’s Allergy Principles and Practice, 6th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1619–1643. Philadelphia: Mosby. Skripak JM, Sampson HA (2008). Towards a cure for food allergy. Current Opinion in Immunology, 20: 690–696.CreditsByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD – Internal Medicine Adam Husney, MD – Family Medicine Martin J. Gabica, MD – Family Medicine Kathleen Romito, MD – Family Medicine Specialist Medical Reviewer Rohit K Katial, MD – Allergy and Immunology Current as ofNovember 15, 2017 Top of PageNext Section:
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E. Gregory Thompson, MD – Internal Medicine & Adam Husney, MD – Family Medicine & Martin J. Gabica, MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito, MD – Family Medicine & Rohit K Katial, MD – Allergy and Immunology Togias A, et al. (2017). Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored expert panel. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 139(1):29-44. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.010. Accessed August 23, 2017.American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3): e827-e841. Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/3/e827.full. Greer FR, et al. (2008). Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: The role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics, 121(1): 183-191. Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/1/183.full.