Sexual and Reproductive Organs

The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. 

VBAC: Participation During Birth

You and your birth partner can take part more fully in a vaginal birth than you can in a cesarean delivery. During a cesarean, the mother gets either a regional anesthetic or a general anesthetic. She can’t fully take part in her baby’s birth. Some mothers feel very strongly about being able to bond with the baby right…

VBAC: Uterine Scar Rupture

The most rare yet most serious risk of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) is that the scar on the uterus may break open (rupture) during labor. Women who have a low transverse cesarean scar have a lower risk of rupturing than women who have a vertical incision scar. About 5 out of 1,000 women (0.5%) with a low…

Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment – Patient Information [NCI]

Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva. Vulvar cancer forms in a woman’s external genitalia. The vulva includes: Inner and outer lips of the vagina. Clitoris (sensitive tissue between the lips). Opening of the vagina and its glands. Mons pubis (the rounded…

Vulvodynia

Is this topic for you? This topic is for women who have vulvodynia, a type of vulvar pain with no known cause. If your doctor has told you that the pain in your vulva is caused by something else, like an infection or a skin problem, see the topic Female Genital Problems and Injuries. What is vulvodynia? Vulvodynia is…

What to Do About Missed or Skipped Birth Control Pills

Birth control methods have high rates of effectiveness if they are used consistently. Follow your health professional’s instructions on what to do if you miss or skip your birth control pills. Some general guidelines are listed here. Combination (estrogen plus progestin) birth control pills Always read the pill label…