Is pneumonia contagious? Causes and transmission

Is pneumonia contagious? Causes and transmission

Viruses or bacteria, which are contagious, cause most forms of pneumonia.
Both viruses and bacteria are contagious.
This makes a person more vulnerable to other types of infections.
The virus spreads easily from person to person, causing a range of symptoms and conditions.
Getting the vaccination can help prevent this type of infection from developing.
This can occur when a person with pneumonia coughs or sneezes and another person inhales the infected particles.
When a person with an infection coughs into their hand and then shakes another person’s hand, the second person can become infected if they touch their mouth or eyes without washing their hands.

Gut bacterial communities of diarrheic patients with indications of Clostridioides difficile infection

Gut bacterial communities of diarrheic patients with indications of Clostridioides difficile infection

We present bacterial 16S rRNA gene datasets derived from stool samples of 44 patients with diarrhea indicative of a Clostridioides difficile infection.
After processing of paired-end sequencing data, reads were merged, quality-filtered, primer sequences removed, reads truncated to 400 bp and dereplicated.
The bacterial community profiles are based on operational taxonomic unit (OTU, defined at 97% genetic identity) frequency in stool samples of 44 patients with diarrhea indicative of C. difficile infection and 35 asymptomatic control individuals (n=79).
Occurrence of diarrhea in patents is indicated by plus (patient exhibited diarrhea) and minus (no diarrhea), results from microbiological diagnosis of C. difficile infection (C. d. m. t.) are shown below (plus, positively tested for C. difficile; minus, negatively tested for C. difficile).
Full size image Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on weighted Unifrac12 was used to display the bacterial community structure in 79 stool samples at same sequencing effort (10.000 reads per sample).
Full size image We present bacterial 16S rRNA gene datasets derived from stool samples of 44 patients with diarrhea indicative of a Clostridioides difficile infection.
After processing of paired-end sequencing data, reads were merged, quality-filtered, primer sequences removed, reads truncated to 400 bp and dereplicated.
The bacterial community profiles are based on operational taxonomic unit (OTU, defined at 97% genetic identity) frequency in stool samples of 44 patients with diarrhea indicative of C. difficile infection and 35 asymptomatic control individuals (n=79).
Occurrence of diarrhea in patents is indicated by plus (patient exhibited diarrhea) and minus (no diarrhea), results from microbiological diagnosis of C. difficile infection (C. d. m. t.) are shown below (plus, positively tested for C. difficile; minus, negatively tested for C. difficile).
Full size image Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on weighted Unifrac12 was used to display the bacterial community structure in 79 stool samples at same sequencing effort (10.000 reads per sample).

Breast cancer: Bacterial deficiency linked with onset

Breast cancer: Bacterial deficiency linked with onset

Researchers examined the bacterial makeup of breast tissue in women with breast cancer and found that it has insufficient levels of a certain bacterial genus called Methylobacterium.
The human microbiome, or the total number of bacteria living in the human body, is known to play a key role in the development of many diseases.
Previous studies have also examined the link between gut microbiota and the development of breast cancer.
Now, researchers break new ground by uncovering the bacterial composition in the breast tissue of cancer patients.
Dr. Charis Eng, chair of the Cleveland Clinic’s Genomic Medicine Institute in Ohio, led the study with Dr. Stephen Grobmyer, director of Breast Services at the Cleveland Clinic.
In addition to the breast tissue microbiome, the scientists examined the urinary and oral bacteria of these women.
More research is needed, the authors note, to understand the role of these bacteria in breast cancer.
However, the research remains “one of the largest studies to examine the microbiome in human breast cancer patients,” write the authors. “If we can target specific pro-cancer bacteria,” adds Dr. Grobmyer, “we may be able to make the environment less hospitable to cancer and enhance existing treatments.”
Both co-senior authors are currently working with other researchers on using nanotechnology to target specific bacteria involved in breast cancer.

PTSD linked to changes in gut bacteria

PTSD linked to changes in gut bacteria

It is not uncommon, at some point in their lives, for people to experience shocking and dangerous events wherein they believe that their lives, or the lives of others, are at risk.
A small proportion of those who experience trauma develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a serious psychiatric disease with a cluster of symptoms.
The immune system and inflammation Previous studies have already pointed to several factors that might determine what makes people either susceptible or resilient to PTSD.
Examining this research, the team behind the new study highlights some potential common ground between stress and gut microbes — especially in relation to the immune system and inflammation.
Differences in three types of bacteria For their investigation, the researchers — including Dr. Stefanie Malan-Müller, a postdoctoral fellow in psychiatry at Stellenbosch University — compared the gut microbes of 18 people diagnosed with PTSD with those of 12 people without PTSD but who had experienced significant trauma (the controls).
Dr. Malan-Müller and her colleagues found that while the overall diversity of the gut microbe population in the PTSD and the trauma-exposed participants was largely similar, there were differences in the abundance of certain classes of bacteria.
However, they did find that participants who had experienced trauma as children had lower levels of two of the gut bacteria (Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia).
Dr. Malan-Müller explains that this is an interesting finding because it is already known that people “who experience childhood trauma are at higher risk of developing PTSD later in life.”
She suggests that perhaps the altered levels of the bacteria “occurred early in life in response to childhood trauma.”
We therefore hypothesize that the low levels of those three bacteria may have resulted in immune dysregulation and heightened levels of inflammation in individuals with PTSD, which may have contributed to their disease symptoms.”

Household microbes: Friend or foe?

Household microbes: Friend or foe?

Microorganisms are ever-present in our environment and in our bodies, and many are known to be beneficial — or even essential — for our health.
The answer depends on our age, the state of our immune system, and, of course, the individual microorganism in question.
So, where can we find these beneficial microorganisms that might protect us from developing allergies?
Microbes that might give us the edge Prof. Peccia found that certain beneficial bacteria were preferentially found in homes that housed multiple families and those with more than three children.
Members of the lactobacillus family were also found in higher numbers in such households, and these probiotic bacteria have been implicated in protection against allergies and asthma.
While microorganisms may play an important role in preventing allergic disease from developing in small children, they can pose a serious threat to the health of others.
When are microbes bad for our health?
For people who have already developed allergic disease, microbes in the living environment spell bad news.
Prof. Peccia also found that the homes of severely asthmatic children tended to harbor similar microbial allergens.
In homes with family members who already have allergies, reducing exposure to any of the culprits that trigger symptoms makes sense.