Is pneumonia contagious? Causes and transmission

Is pneumonia contagious? Causes and transmission

Viruses or bacteria, which are contagious, cause most forms of pneumonia.
Both viruses and bacteria are contagious.
This makes a person more vulnerable to other types of infections.
The virus spreads easily from person to person, causing a range of symptoms and conditions.
Getting the vaccination can help prevent this type of infection from developing.
This can occur when a person with pneumonia coughs or sneezes and another person inhales the infected particles.
When a person with an infection coughs into their hand and then shakes another person’s hand, the second person can become infected if they touch their mouth or eyes without washing their hands.

Quantifying the relative immune cell activation from whole tissue/organ-derived differentially expressed gene data

Quantifying the relative immune cell activation from whole tissue/organ-derived differentially expressed gene data

S14b–d and Supplementary Fig. S14b–d and Supplementary Fig.
2b) but not in bCD.IP (Fig. 2b) but not in bCD.IP (Fig.
For the GSE7768 contamination analysis, we plotted the gene expression data (x-axis) together with our reference CV values (y-axis) for all nine samples (Supplementary Fig. For the GSE7768 contamination analysis, we plotted the gene expression data (x-axis) together with our reference CV values (y-axis) for all nine samples (Supplementary Fig.
S7 and Supplementary Fig.
The resultant ICEPOP score for each cell type, SR, and CRT for mouse (Supplementary Fig. The resultant ICEPOP score for each cell type, SR, and CRT for mouse (Supplementary Fig.
In the LPS analysis (Supplementary Fig.

A Novel Mouse Model of iNKT Cell-deficiency Generated by CRISPR/Cas9 Reveals a Pathogenic Role of iNKT Cells in Metabolic Disease

A Novel Mouse Model of iNKT Cell-deficiency Generated by CRISPR/Cas9 Reveals a Pathogenic Role of iNKT Cells in Metabolic Disease

All four Traj18-partial deletion mouse lines harbored similar Traj gene segments as WT B6 mice, except for Traj18 (Fig.
(a) TCRα repertoire diversity analyzed by next generation sequencing.
Frequencies of iNKT cells in the spleen and liver from WT B6 and Traj18−/− (1-1 L) mice were analyzed by flow cytometry, which revealed iNKT cell-deficiency in Traj18−/− (1-1 L) mice (Fig. Analysis of developmental stages of thymocytes revealed no difference between Traj18−/− (1-1 L) and WT B6 mice (Supplemental Fig. We also analyzed the frequencies of T cells with specific functions such as type 2 NKT cells, regulatory T cells (Treg) and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in the thymus, resulting in no differences between Traj18−/− (1-1 L) and WT B6 mice (Supplemental Fig.
Because some functional studies on iNKT cells require animals on a genetic background distinct from the B6 strain, we also generated a Traj18−/− (1-1 L) BALB/c mouse line by backcrossing, and confirmed the absence of iNKT cells and cytokine production in response to α-GalCer stimulation (Supplemental Fig.
However, divergent findings for the metabolic role of iNKT cells have been reported in studies using the previously generated Traj18−/− mouse strain.
Among the experimental groups on HFD, both Traj18−/− (1-1 L) and Cd1d−/− mice gained less weight than WT B6 mice, whereas there was no significant difference in the weight gain between Traj18−/− (1-1 L) and Cd1d−/− mice (Fig.
Another new Traj18−/− mouse line generated by Dashtsoodol et al. also contained similar Trav1-Traj33 expression levels as WT B6 mice13, indicating normal MAIT cell development and cell number.

PTSD linked to changes in gut bacteria

PTSD linked to changes in gut bacteria

It is not uncommon, at some point in their lives, for people to experience shocking and dangerous events wherein they believe that their lives, or the lives of others, are at risk.
A small proportion of those who experience trauma develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a serious psychiatric disease with a cluster of symptoms.
The immune system and inflammation Previous studies have already pointed to several factors that might determine what makes people either susceptible or resilient to PTSD.
Examining this research, the team behind the new study highlights some potential common ground between stress and gut microbes — especially in relation to the immune system and inflammation.
Differences in three types of bacteria For their investigation, the researchers — including Dr. Stefanie Malan-Müller, a postdoctoral fellow in psychiatry at Stellenbosch University — compared the gut microbes of 18 people diagnosed with PTSD with those of 12 people without PTSD but who had experienced significant trauma (the controls).
Dr. Malan-Müller and her colleagues found that while the overall diversity of the gut microbe population in the PTSD and the trauma-exposed participants was largely similar, there were differences in the abundance of certain classes of bacteria.
However, they did find that participants who had experienced trauma as children had lower levels of two of the gut bacteria (Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia).
Dr. Malan-Müller explains that this is an interesting finding because it is already known that people “who experience childhood trauma are at higher risk of developing PTSD later in life.”
She suggests that perhaps the altered levels of the bacteria “occurred early in life in response to childhood trauma.”
We therefore hypothesize that the low levels of those three bacteria may have resulted in immune dysregulation and heightened levels of inflammation in individuals with PTSD, which may have contributed to their disease symptoms.”

Peanut allergy risk SLASHED if parents do THIS simple trick during infancy

Peanut allergy risk SLASHED if parents do THIS simple trick during infancy

Food allergies are when the body’s immune system reacts unusually when eating particular items, and having an aversion to peanuts is one of the most common types.
Sufferers risk a runny nose, skin reactions, itching, digestive problems, tightening of the throat, and shortness of breath, if they consume the food.
However, researchers have discovered that peanut allergies could be prevented if mothers consumed them during breastfeeding.
We found that the introduction of peanuts before 12 months of age was associated with a reduced risk of peanut sensitisation by school age.
The Canadian study found that exposing children to them early in life could stop them suffering.
“We found that the introduction of peanuts before 12 months of age was associated with a reduced risk of peanut sensitisation by school age, particularly among children whose mothers consumed peanuts while breastfeeding,” said Dr Tracey Pitt, lead study author from the Humber River Hospital in Ontario.
The idea is that this will desensitise their immune system.
Allergy rates are on the rise in the UK, with one in every hundred people thought to suffer from a peanut allergy.
This is because they grow underground, as opposed to on trees like almonds.