Bile acid TUDCA improves insulin clearance by increasing the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the liver of obese mice

Bile acid TUDCA improves insulin clearance by increasing the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the liver of obese mice

Here, we demonstrated that 15 days treatment with TUDCA reestablished plasma insulin to physiological concentrations in high fat diet (HFD) mice, a phenomenon associated with increased insulin clearance and liver IDE expression.
This effect is probably due to increased IDE expression in the liver.
TUDCA treatment reduced body and fat pad weight in the HFD + TUDCA mice (Table 1) and also returned fed/fasted blood glucose concentrations to levels similar to the CON mice (Table 1).
During the ipITT, HFD mice displayed higher blood glucose, compared with CON mice (Fig.
The treatment with TUDCA restored insulin sensitivity in HFD + TUDCA mice (Fig.
Also, plasma insulin concentration was increased in the HFD mice (Fig.
Thus, reduction in the C-peptide:insulin ratio indicates a reduced insulin clearance, as we observed in the HFD mice (Fig.
3B and C), it restored the IDE protein expression in the HFD + TUDCA to levels similar to that of CON mice (Fig.
TUDCA treatment increases insulin clearance in HFD mice.
Full size image TUDCA treatment increases IDE expression, but not activity in HFD mice.

Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fibrosis in Diet-induced Obese Mice

Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fibrosis in Diet-induced Obese Mice

To define whether activated calpains influence diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, mice that were either wild type (WT) or overexpressing calpastatin (CAST Tg), the endogenous inhibitor of calpains were fed with high (60% kcal) fat diet for 16 weeks.
However, CAST overexpression significantly reduced adipocyte apoptosis, adipose tissue collagen and macrophage accumulation as detected by TUNEL, Picro Sirius and F4/80 immunostaining, respectively.
Furthermore, calpain inhibition suppressed macrophage migration to adipose tissue in vitro.
Abundance of calpain protein and its activity was increased in obese adipose tissue.
(A) Calpain-1, -2, -4, CAST and β-actin protein were detected by Western blotting in epididymal white adipose tissue (EpiWAT) extracts of wild type mice fed either a LFD or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 3).
(A) Representative TUNEL staining of EpiWAT cross-sections from 16 week LFD and HFD fed CAST WT and Tg mice.
(B) Representative EpiWAT sections from LFD and HFD fed CAST WT and Tg mice immunostained for active caspase 3.
(A) Representative immunofluorescent staining of F4/80 in EpiWAT cross-sections from 16 week LFD and HFD fed CAST WT and Tg mice.
(A) Representative Sirius red staining of EpiWAT cross-sections from LFD and HFD fed CAST WT and Tg mice.
(A) Representative hematoxylin and eosin staining of liver cross-sections from LFD and HFD fed CAST WT and Tg mice.

Macrophage VLDLR mediates obesity-induced insulin resistance with adipose tissue inflammation

Macrophage VLDLR mediates obesity-induced insulin resistance with adipose tissue inflammation

Moreover, elevated VLDLR protein was detected in CD11b+ ATMs from obese adipose tissues (Fig.
These data suggested that macrophage VLDLR could potentiate M1-like macrophage polarization by uptaking VLDL.
Although it has been shown that elevated circulating ceramides would confer systemic insulin resistance40, 41, the levels of secreted ceramides were not different in CM from WT and VLDLR KO BMDMs (Supplementary Fig. In WT macrophages, the level of C16:0 ceramides was elevated by VLDL, whereas VLDLR KO macrophages did not increase C16:0 ceramides in the presence of VLDL (Fig.
In the presence of VLDL, the levels of iNOS, TNFα, and IL-1β mRNA were less increased in VLDLR KO macrophages than WT macrophages (Fig.
Together, these data indicated that macrophage VLDLR could potentiate adipose tissue inflammation in DIO.
c, d Relative mRNA levels of macrophage (c) and pro-inflammatory (d) markers in EATs from WT and KO BMT mice.
These data imply that macrophage VLDLR would be important for potentiating M1-like macrophage polarization in the presence of VLDL.

Dietary teasaponin ameliorates alteration of gut microbiota and cognitive decline in diet-induced obese mice

Dietary teasaponin ameliorates alteration of gut microbiota and cognitive decline in diet-induced obese mice

There was no statistical difference between the HF + TS group and the control group in Lactobacillus spp. There was no statistical difference between the HF + TS group and the control group in Lactobacillus spp.
(A) Bacteroides-Prevotella, Desulfovibrios, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus DNA expressions in gut microbiota of the control group (Con), high-fat diet group (HF), and HF with teasaponin treatment group (HF + TS) (n = 12 per group). (A) Bacteroides-Prevotella, Desulfovibrios, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus DNA expressions in gut microbiota of the control group (Con), high-fat diet group (HF), and HF with teasaponin treatment group (HF + TS) (n = 12 per group).
Teasaponin prevented an increase of plasma LPS induced by the HF diet after the 6-week treatment (Control: 0.66 ± 0.03 EU/ml, HF: 1.05 ± 0.08 EU/ml, HF + TS: 0.67 ± 0.04 EU/ml, p = 0.001). Teasaponin prevented an increase of plasma LPS induced by the HF diet after the 6-week treatment (Control: 0.66 ± 0.03 EU/ml, HF: 1.05 ± 0.08 EU/ml, HF + TS: 0.67 ± 0.04 EU/ml, p = 0.001).
In the present study, treatment with teasaponin, an important active ingredient of tea, improved microbiota and enhanced memory for object recognition in HF diet fed mice. In the present study, treatment with teasaponin, an important active ingredient of tea, improved microbiota and enhanced memory for object recognition in HF diet fed mice.
In our study, we found that teasaponin prevented a HF diet induced alteration of microbiota at the species level, especially increasing Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. In our study, we found that teasaponin prevented a HF diet induced alteration of microbiota at the species level, especially increasing Bacteroides-Prevotella spp.

Anti-obesity effect of a traditional Chinese dietary habit—blending lard with vegetable oil while cooking

Anti-obesity effect of a traditional Chinese dietary habit—blending lard with vegetable oil while cooking

It suggests that the traditional Chinese dietary habits using oils blended with lard and soybean oil, might be one of the factors of lower percentages of overweight and obesity in China, and that the increasing of dietary oil intake and the changing of its component resulted in the increasing of obesity rate in China over the past decades.
Among the Chinese gastronomy habits, many Chinese people prefer to blend lard with vegetable oil or use them as an alternation while cooking; in this way, they would not only advance the tastes of food, but also reduce the consumption of total oil by one third.
Serum TG level of mice in SO-H (6.5% soybean oil) group and LO-H (6.5% lard oil) group were significantly higher than SO-L (3.8% soybean oil) group and LO-L (3.8% lard oil) group, respectively (P < 0.01). There was no significant change of liver TC between the groups using different types of oils (P > 0.05) (Fig.
In addition, blended oil significantly up regulated ATGL protein level while compared with mice fed with soybean oil and lard (P < 0.01), and soybean oil led to the lowest ATGL level (Fig. Full size image Obesity, which is associated with dietary habits, has become a global social problem and causes many metabolic diseases. It suggests that the traditional Chinese dietary habits using oils blended with lard and soybean oil, might be one of the factors of lower percentages of overweight and obesity in China, and that the increasing of dietary oil intake and the changing of its component resulted in the increasing of obesity rate in China over the past decades. Among the Chinese gastronomy habits, many Chinese people prefer to blend lard with vegetable oil or use them as an alternation while cooking; in this way, they would not only advance the tastes of food, but also reduce the consumption of total oil by one third. There was no significant change of liver TC between the groups using different types of oils (P > 0.05) (Fig.
In addition, blended oil significantly up regulated ATGL protein level while compared with mice fed with soybean oil and lard (P < 0.01), and soybean oil led to the lowest ATGL level (Fig.