Cognitive impairment occurs when there is a problem with perceiving, thinking, or remembering. Strokes are a common cause of cognitive impairment. Other causes include head injuries and some chronic diseases, such as sickle cell disease or multiple sclerosis.
Cognitive impairment may cause difficulties with:
Memory, especially short-term memory.
Attention span, especially in a mental task such as a math calculation.
Expressing oneself, such as finding the right words to use in a conversation.
Therapy may help a person make the most of his or her abilities.