Feeding Your Infant

Feeding Your Infant

Topic Overview

From birth, infants follow their
internal hunger and fullness cues. They eat when they're hungry and stop eating
when they're full. Experts agree that newborns should be fed on demand. This
means that you breast- or bottle-feed your infant whenever he or she shows
signs of hunger, rather than setting a strict schedule. You let your infant
stop feeding at will, even if there is milk left in the bottle or your breast
still feels full.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends breastfeeding
babies for at least the first year and giving only breast milk for the first 6
months.footnote 1 Although breastfed babies get the best possible nutrition, they will probably need certain vitamin or nutritional supplements to maintain or improve their health, especially iron.

If you are unable to or
choose not to breastfeed, feed your baby commercially prepared iron-fortified
formula. In some cases, doctors advise adding a thickening agent to breast milk or formula. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits before using one.

If at any time you are having trouble feeding your baby, talk to your doctor or nurse.

Cow's milk, goat's
milk, and soy milk are not appropriate for babies younger than 1 year of age.
They do not contain the amounts of fat, iron, and other nutrients that very
young babies need in order to grow and develop properly. Also, the protein in
cow's and goat's milk is very hard for young babies to digest.

When
your baby reaches about 6 months of age, you can begin adding other foods besides
breast milk or infant formula to your baby's diet. Some babies may be ready for solid foods at 4 or 5 months. Ask your doctor when you can start feeding your baby solid foods. And if a family member has food allergies, ask whether and how to start foods that might cause allergies. Most allergic reactions in children are caused by eggs, milk, wheat, soy, and peanuts. You and your baby can make
this transition to other foods smoothly if you follow these tips:

  • Start with very soft foods, such as baby cereal. Iron-fortified, single-grain baby cereals are a good
    choice, because they provide the iron a growing baby needs and have a low risk
    of causing food allergies.
  • If your doctor thinks your baby might be at risk for a peanut allergy, ask him or her about introducing peanut products. There may be a way to prevent peanut allergies.footnote 2
  • Introduce one new food at a time. This
    can help you know if your baby has an allergy to a certain food. You can
    introduce a new food every 2 to 3 days.
  • As soon as your baby is
    eating solid foods, look for signs that he or she is still hungry or is
    full.
  • Pay close attention to your baby's reaction when you are
    feeding him or her. Follow your baby's lead. Don't persist if your baby isn't
    interested in or doesn't like the food. Generally:

    • A baby who eagerly leans toward the spoon
      with his or her mouth open is clearly interested in what you are offering. Feed
      him or her more.
    • A baby who turns or looks away from the spoon
      isn't interested in the food you are offering or is full and is ready to stop
      eating.
    • Continue to offer breast milk or infant formula as part of
      your baby's diet until he or she is at least 12 months old.

By 12 months, your child will be able to eat many of the same
foods the rest of the family eats. Your child can sit with you at the table for
short periods of time during meals. Sharing meals with your child allows him or
her see you eating a variety of foods, which makes it more likely that your
child will also eat a variety of foods as he or she gets older.

As
your infant reaches 1 year of age, you may find it helpful to know what your
job is and what your child's job is when it comes to eating. Parents provide
meal structure. That means you are in charge of deciding when meals and snacks are served, where
meals and snacks are eaten, and what is served. Your
child's job is to decide how much of the provided foods
he or she will eat. This will help you avoid power struggles about food.

Juice does not have the
valuable fiber that whole fruit has. Unless the label says the drink has only 100% juice, beware that many fruit drinks are just water, a little juice flavoring, and a lot of added sugar. If you must give juice, water it down. The American Academy of Pediatrics advises no more than 4 fl oz (120 mL) to 6 fl oz (180 mL) of 100% fruit juice a day for children 1 to 6 years old.footnote 3 This means ½ cup to ¾ cup. Juice isn't recommended for babies 0 to 12 months.

References

Citations

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3): e827–e841. Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/3/e827.full.
  2. Togias A, et al. (2017). Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored expert panel. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 139(1): 29–44. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.010. Accessed August 23, 2017.
  3. Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of Pediatrics (2001, reaffirmed 2006). The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 107(5): 1210–1213. Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/107/5/1210.full.

Other Works Consulted

  • American Academy of Pediatrics (2010). Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0–3 years of age). Pediatrics, 126(5): 1040–1050. Available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/126/5/1040.

Credits

ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical Reviewer John Pope, MD - Pediatrics Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine Specialist Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine

Current as ofNovember 15, 2017

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