Healthwise Helps You Make Better Health Decisions

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Healthwise Helps You Make Better Health Decisions

Healthwise Helps You Make Better Health Decisions

About Healthwise

Healthwise
is a nonprofit organization founded in 1975 with the mission to help people
make better health decisions. More than 100 million times a year people like
you use Healthwise® information to take an active
role in their health.

The best formula for making health decisions
is to combine the most reliable medical facts with your personal feelings. Put
more simply: Medical Information + Your Information = Better Health
Decisions.

Your decisions influence your overall well-being as
well as the quality and cost of your care. By taking an active role in your
health, you are likely to be happier with the care you receive and the results
you achieve.

Read these Healthwise stories to see how Healthwise helps people make better health decisions.

Patricia survives heart attack

Patricia used the Healthwise Knowledgebase to save her own life.

Patricia had
just finished her Saturday-morning chores when her lungs began burning. She was
sweating and had some numbness in her arms. She drew a bath thinking, "I must
be having a panic attack—I'll be all right if I can just relax."

A few hours later, the 42-year-old still felt like she had "an elephant
sitting on my chest." Patricia canceled her usual horse-riding lesson and took
a nap instead. When she awoke, she felt even worse.

"Then I
thought: Check [the Healthwise® Knowledgebase on]
the Internet," says Patricia. "I had almost every heart attack symptom
described in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase. I knew I
had to get to the hospital right away!"

Hospital tests confirmed
that Patricia had indeed had a heart attack, and the following Tuesday she had
triple-bypass heart surgery. Today, Patricia is back in the saddle, riding
horses and enjoying life.

Carolyn Brzezicki

Count on Carolyn Brzezicki—Healthwise clinical specialist and writer, mom, sister, friend, and registered nurse.

"Stories like Patricia's inspire our work every day," says Carolyn Brzezicki. "Each of us at Healthwise thinks about our own stories of how we've turned to our information to help our families, friends, and ourselves make better decisions."

Carolyn, a Healthwise clinical specialist, writer, and content developer, focuses on helping people live better with diabetes. She also reviews the studies, medical literature, and guidelines to assess how new findings in diabetes may affect the content.

Living within just a few miles of her extended family, Carolyn is able to be there for them when they need her—when they're feeling great or not so great. Just like you, she looks for information that's easy to use and understand for her and her family.

Her volunteer work in a diabetes-nutrition center, with hospice, and as a facilitator for a bereavement support group reminds her how confusing medical issues can be. So when she's at work, she always thinks about what's most important for people to know and how it should be explained.

"Because I'm a registered nurse, family and friends call me with questions about a medical test, a new medicine, or what to do about an issue. I always go straight to the Healthwise Knowledgebase," says Carolyn. "Over the years, Healthwise has helped me in so many ways. I'm so proud of our work and how it makes a real difference in people's lives."

Robert Kloner, MD

World-class heart doctor Robert Kloner, MD, PhD, is in your corner.

Robert Kloner
is one of 295 experts who review Healthwise information for accuracy and
currency. He helps us help you make better health decisions on heart-related
issues.

Dr. Kloner is known as one of America's leading heart
experts. For the past 30 years Dr. Kloner has taught at medical schools,
participated in major research projects, and contributed to medical journal
articles. He is professor of medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of
University of Southern California. He is also director of research at the Heart
Institute of Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles and an attending
cardiologist at Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical
School.

Dr. Kloner previously directed the Cardiac Research
Laboratory at Harvard Medical School. He has also edited 18 authoritative
medical texts.

"Good information is critical to good health and
good health care," says Dr. Kloner. "With easy-to-understand, reliable
information, people can make good decisions. When I hear stories like
Patricia's, I'm especially gratified to be part of the Healthwise review team."

Comments

Healthwise benefits from readers' input to keep our content helpful. Send us your comments by contacting your sponsoring organization or by emailing Healthwise at comments@healthwise.org. If you contact Healthwise, you can expect a reply within about two weeks.

For answers to your specific health issues, contact your health professional. Or if you think you need care right away, call 911 or other emergency services.

Healthwise
P.O. Box
1989
2601 N. Bogus
Basin Road
Boise, Idaho
83701
1-800-706-9646
www.healthwise.org

Last updated: March 2011

Healthwise Medical Review Board

The Healthwise Medical Review
Board is directed by our chief medical officer, Dr. Adam C. Husney, and
our medical directors, Dr. Kathleen Romito and Dr. Heather Quinn. Both are board-certified physicians. Dr. Christine Maldonado provides
leadership on behavioral health issues for all Healthwise products. There is also a panel of board-certified Associate Medical Directors and Medical Editors who are involved in the planning, product and content development, and the regular and routine review of
content written by
Healthwise.

Chief Medical Officer:

Adam C. Husney
,
MD, Family Medicine, Boise,
Idaho

Medical Director:

Heather Quinn
, MD, Family Medicine, Boise, Idaho

Medical Director:

Kathleen Romito
, MD, Family Medicine, Boise, Idaho

Behavioral Health Specialist:

Christine Maldonado
, PhD, Behavioral Health, Boise, Idaho

Associate Medical Directors:

Medical Editors:

The Healthwise Medical Review Board also includes health professionals and medical specialists who review Healthwise content from a specialist's point of view. Their credentials
include board certification, licensure, and/or registration; academic appointments at leading
medical schools; involvement in research; and publication in
peer-reviewed journals and medical textbooks. Most important, they share the
Healthwise commitment to empowering patients with reliable health information
and building strong patient-provider relationships. This encourages
partnerships in the decision-making process. With input from
these specialists, and with oversight by one of the Medical Directors or Medical Editors, Healthwise medical writers develop health information based on
scientific evidence and current clinical practice.

Before approving reviewers, Healthwise verifies that they have current licenses, registrations, and certifications with state or national agencies. We also verify with bodies that certify in specialty areas, if appropriate. The reviewers must be in good standing with these organizations during the time they review Healthwise content. We check this standing at least every 3 years. In addition, reviewers agree to notify Healthwise immediately if the status of their licenses, registrations, or certifications changes.
The following
physicians and health professionals are members of the Healthwise Medical Review Board:

Addiction Medicine


Michael F. Bierer
, MD, Internal Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

Allergy and Immunology


Rohit K Katial
, MD, Denver, Colorado


Lora J. Stewart
, MD, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Denver, Colorado

Anesthesiology


John M. Freedman
, MD, Anesthesiology, Santa Rosa, California

Cardiology


Stephen Fort
, MD, MRCP,
FRCPC, Interventional Cardiology, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada


Robert A. Kloner
, MD, PhD, Los Angeles, California


Jared Magnani
, MD, Cardiovascular Disease, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


John A. McPherson
, MD, FACC, FSCAI, Interventional Cardiology, Nashville, Tennessee


John M. Miller
, MD, Electrophysiology, Indianapolis, Indiana


George J. Philippides
, MD,
FACC, Boston, Massachusetts


Rita F. Redberg
,
MD, San Francisco, California

Chiropractic


Christine Goertz
, DC, PhD, Davenport, Iowa

Dentistry


Arden G. Christen
, DDS, MSD, MA, FACD, Indianapolis, Indiana


Steven K. Patterson
, BSc, DDS, MPH, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


Bryan D. Tompson
, DDS, FRCDC, Orthodontics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Dermatology


Randall D. Burr
, MD, Boise, Idaho


Ellen K. Roh
, MD,
Boston, Massachusetts

Diet and Nutrition


Barbara L. Grant
, RDN, CSO, FAND, LD, Oncology Nutritionist, Boise, Idaho


Rhonda O'Brien
, MS, RD, CDE,
Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator, Boise, Idaho


Colleen O'Connor
, PhD, RD, Registered Dietitian, London, Ontario, Canada

Emergency Medicine


William H. Blahd Jr
, MD, FACEP, New York, New York


David Messenger
, BSc, MD, FRCPC, FCCP, Critical Care Medicine, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism


Alan C. Dalkin
, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia


Jennifer Hone
, MD, Santa Barbara, California


Matthew I. Kim
,
MD, Boston, Massachusetts


David C.W. Lau
, MD, PhD, FRCPC, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Epidemiology


Martin Englund
, MD, Lund, Sweden


Leslie A. Tengelsen
, PhD, DVM, Zoonotic Diseases, Boise, Idaho

Ergonomics


William S. Marras
, PhD, CPE, Bioengineering and Ergonomics, Columbus, Ohio

Exercise Physiology


Heather O. Chambliss
, PhD, FACSM, Exercise Science, Memphis, Tennessee


Richard B. Kreider
, PhD, FACSM, FASEP, Exercise Physiology, Waco, Texas

Family Medicine


David Agler
, MD, Boise, Idaho


Thomas M. Bailey
, MD, CCFP, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada


Patrice Burgess
,
MD, FAAFP, Boise, Idaho


Christine H. Fordyce
, MD, Geriatrics, Seattle, Washington


Adam C. Husney
, MD, Boise, Idaho


Marco Mannarino
, MD, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


Kathleen Romito
, MD, Boise, Idaho


Donald Sproule
, MD, CM, CCFP, FCFP, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Gastroenterology


Peter J. Kahrilas
, MD, Chicago, Illinois


Jerry S. Trier
, MD, Boston, Massachusetts


Arvydas D. Vanagunas
, MD,
FACP, FACG, Chicago, Illinois

Genetics


Siobhan M. Dolan
, MD, MPH, Medical Genetics, Bronx, New York

Geriatric Medicine


Carla J. Herman
, MD, MPH, Albuquerque, New Mexico


Jean S. Kutner
, MD, MSPH, Geriatrics, Aurora, Colorado


Elizabeth A. Phelan
, MD, MS, Seattle, Washington

Hematology/Oncology


Wendy Y. Chen
, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts


Andrea Jean Evenski
, MD, Oncology, Columbia, Missouri


Jeffrey S. Ginsberg
, MD, FRCPC, Hematology, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada


Brian Leber
, MDCM, FRCPC, Hematology, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada


Joseph F. O'Donnell
, MD, Hanover, New Hampshire


Michael S. Rabin
, MD, Medical Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts


Jimmy Ruiz
, MD, Winston-Salem, North Carolina


Douglas A. Stewart
, MD, FRCPC, Medical Oncology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Hepatology


W. Thomas London
, MD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Hospice and Palliative Medicine


Robin L. Fainsinger
, MB, ChB, LMCC, CCFP, Palliative Medicine, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


Shelly R. Garone
, MD, Roseville, California

Infectious Diseases


W. David Colby
, IV, MSc, MD, FRCPC, Travel Medicine and Tropical Diseases, London, Ontario, Canada


Christine Hahn
, MD, Medical Epidemiology, Boise, Idaho


Peter Shalit
, MD, PhD, Internal
Medicine, Seattle, Washington


Dennis L. Stevens
, MD, PhD, Boise, Idaho


Raymond A. Strikas
, MD,
MPH, FACS, Atlanta, Georgia

Internal Medicine


Steven J. Atlas
, MD, MPH, Boston, Massachusetts


Roger Chou
, MD, Portland, Oregon


O. Kenrik Duru
, MD, Los Angeles, California


Joann G. Elmore
, MD, MPH, FACP, Internal Medicine/Infectious Disease, Seattle, Washington


Rafael (Ralph) Gonzales
, MD, MSPH, San Francisco, California


Ethan A. Halm
, MD, MPH, Dallas, Texas


Richard M. Hoffman
, MD, MPH, Albuquerque, New Mexico


Brigid McCaw
, MD, MPH, MS, FACP, Family Violence, Oakland, California


Brian O'Brien
, MD, FRCPC, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada


Michael P. Pignone
, MD, MPH, FACP, Durham, North Carolina


Anne C. Poinier
, MD, Boise, Idaho


Neil R. Powe
, MD, MPH, Oakland, California


Caroline Rhoads
, MD, Seattle, Washington


Elizabeth T. Russo
, MD, Internal Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts


E. Gregory Thompson
, MD, Boise, Idaho


John W. Williams Jr.,
MD, MHSc, Durham, North Carolina


John B. Wong
, MD, Internal Medicine/Clinical Decision Making, Boston, Massachusetts

Maternal-Fetal Medicine


William M. Gilbert
, MD, Sacramento, California

Midwifery


Frances E. Likis
, DrPH, NP, CNM, FACNM, FAAN, Nashville, Tennessee

Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine


Kim E. Dow
, MD, FRCPC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada


Jennifer Merchant
, MD, Boise, Idaho

Nephrology


Mitchell H. Rosner
, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia


Tushar J. Vachharajani
, MD, FASN, FACP, Clemmons, North Carolina

Neurology


Colin H. Chalk
,
MD, CM, FRCPC, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


Karin M. Lindholm
, DO, Hailey, Idaho


Steven C. Schachter
, MD, Boston, Massachusetts


G. Frederick Wooten Jr.
, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia

Nursing


Joyce E. Schleis
, RN, BSN, IBCLC, Lactation, Boise, Idaho


Gayle Stauffer
, RN, Boise, Idaho

Obstetrics/Gynecology


Rebecca H. Allen
, MD, MPH, Providence, Rhode Island


Divya Gupta
, MD, Gynecologic Oncology New York, New York


Kirtly Jones
, MD, Reproductive
Endocrinology, Salt Lake City, Utah


Kevin C. Kiley
, MD, FACOG, Albany, New York


Femi Olatunbosun
, MB, FRCSC, FACOG, Reproductive Endocrinology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada


Deborah A. Penava
, MD, FRCSC, MPH,
London, Ontario, Canada


Rebecca S. Uranga
, MD, Meridian, Idaho

Occupational Therapy


Jody Bradbury
, OT, CHT, Certified Hand Therapist, Boise, Idaho

Ophthalmology and Optometry


Carol L. Karp
, MD, Miami, Florida


Douglas Rett
, OD, FAAO, Boston, Massachusetts


Christopher Joseph Rudnisky
, MD, BMs, MPH, FRCSC, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Orthopaedics


Davide Bardana
, MD, FRCSC, Sports Medicine, Kingston, Ontario, Canada


Freddie H. Fu
, MD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


Robert B. Keller
, MD, Biddeford, Maine


Kenneth J. Koval
, MD, Orthopaedic Trauma, Lebanon, New Hampshire


Patrick J. McMahon
, MD, Sports Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


Herbert von Schroeder
, MD, MSc, FRCSC, Hand and Microsurgery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Otolaryngology


Donald R. Mintz
, MD, FRCSC, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada


Charles M. Myer III
, MD, Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, Ohio

Pediatrics


Thomas Emmett Francoeur
, MDCM, CSPQ, FRCPC, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


Susan Kim
, MD, Boise, Idaho


Stephen H. LaFranchi
, MD, Pediatric
Endocrinology, Portland, Oregon


Martha K. Nicholson
, MD, Walnut Creek, California


Louis Pellegrino
, MD, Neurodevelopmental
Disabilities, Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Syracuse, New York


John Pope
, MD, Pediatric Hospitalist, Phoenix, Arizona


Frederick P. Rivara
, MD, MPH, Seattle, Washington

Pharmacy


Margaret Hetherington
, PharmD, Kingston, Ontario, Canada


Theresa O'Young
,
PharmD, Clinical Pharmacist, Seattle, Washington

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation


Margaret M. Doucette
, DO, Wound Care and Hyperbaric Medicine, Boise, Idaho


Nancy E. Greenwald
, MD, Boise, Idaho


Richard D. Zorowitz
, MD, Baltimore, Maryland

Physical Therapy


Mary McVicars Heckel
, PT, MAPT, CLT-LANA, CWS, Boise, Idaho


Joan Rigg
, PT, OCS, Orthopaedic Physical Therapy, Boise, Idaho

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery


Keith A. Denkler
, MD, Larkspur, California

Podiatry and Podiatric Surgery


Gavin W.G. Chalmers
,
DPM, FACFAS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada


Barry L. Scurran
,
DPM, Fremont, California

Psychiatry


W. Stewart Agras
, MD, FRCPC, Palo Alto, California


David A. Brent
, MD, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


Evan Eyler
, MD, MPH, Adolescent and Psychosomatic Medicine, Burlington, Vermont


Alfred J. Lewy
, MD, PhD, Portland, Oregon


Steven Locke
, MD, Psychosomatic Medicine and Behavioral Health, Wayland, Massachusetts


Fred R. Volkmar
,
MD, Pediatric Psychiatry, New Haven, Connecticut


Myron F. Weiner
, MD, Geriatric Psychiatry, Dallas, Texas


Lisa S. Weinstock
, MD, Mount Kisco, New York


Sidney Zisook
, MD, San Diego, California

Psychology


Jessica Hamblen
, PhD, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, White River Junction, Vermont


Christine R. Maldonado
, PhD, Behavioral Health, Boise, Idaho


Timothy Stockwell
,
PhD, Public Policy, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Pulmonology


Hasmeena Kathuria
, MD,
Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts


Mark A. Rasmus
, MD, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Boise, Idaho


R. Steven Tharratt
, MD, FACP, FCCP, Pulmonology and Critical Care
Medicine, Toxicology, Sacramento, California

Radiology


Ronald C. Chen
, MD, MPH, Radiation Oncology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina


Myo Min Han
, MD, Nuclear Medicine, Oakland, California


Howard B. Schaff
, MD, Diagnostic Radiology, Boise, Idaho

Respiratory Therapy


Catherine O'Malley
, RRT, Chicago, Illinois

Rheumatology


Richa Dhawan
, MD, Shreveport, Louisiana


Nancy Ann Shadick
, MD, MPH, Boston, Massachusetts

Speech and Language Pathology


Ann W. Kummer
, PhD, CCC-SLP, Cincinnati, Ohio

Surgery


Kenneth Bark
, MD, General and Colorectal Surgery, Utica, Michigan


Laura S. Dominici
, MD, Breast Surgical Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts


Jeffrey Gilbertson
, MD, Vascular Surgery, Boise, Idaho


Vikram S. Iyer
, MD, FRCSC, General and Vascular Surgery, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada


John Loeser
, MD, FAANS, Neurological Surgery, Seattle, Washington


Michael M. Murr
, MD, Gastrointestinal Surgery, Tampa, Florida


David C. Stuesse
, MD, Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery, Boise, Idaho


David A. Szalay
, MD, Vascular Surgery, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada


Ali Tavakkoli
, MD, Bariatric Surgery, Boston, Massachusetts


Brad W. Warner
, MD, Pediatric
Surgery/Critical Care, St. Louis, Missouri


Christian G. Zimmerman
, MD, FACS, MBA, Neurological Surgery, Boise, Idaho

Urology


Peter Anderson
,
MD, FRCS), Pediatric Urology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada


Avery L. Seifert
, MD, FACS, Boise, Idaho


Christopher G. Wood
, MD, FACS, Houston, Texas

Last updated: March 2017

Healthwise Content Development Team

Leadership

Christine Calhoun, MPH

Bill Coffey

Jeannette Curtis, BS

Deborah Dakins, BA

Adam Husney, MD

Patrick Kilby, BA

Judi Marsh, MBA

Katy Magee, MA

Monica Rhodes, BA

Medical Directors

Christine Maldonado, PhD

Heather Quinn, MD

Kathleen Romito, MD

Content Strategy, Special Projects, Technical Architecture, & Operations

Kathleen M. Ariss, MS

Kacy Laragan Banks, BS, CPCS

Bill Burns, MA

Maria G. Essig, MS

Carrie Henley, BA

Christopher Hess, BA

Paul Lehnert, MA

Kim Oliver, BS

Bradley Steele

Maija Teppola

Kristie Woolsey

Medical Writers

Bill Amos, JD

Colleen Cronin, MA

Patrice Dodd, MA

Eileen Ellig, BJ

Marianne Flagg, BA

Lila Havens, MA

Nathaniel Hoffman, MA

Ryan Powers, MFA

Fran Valentine, BA

Clinical & Medical Content Specialists-US & Canadian Medicine

Jennifer Adams, MLS

Jan Anderson, RN

Julie Beauregard, MLIS

Carolyn Brzezicki, RN, MS

Bets Davis, MFA

Shannon Erstad, RPT, MBA, MPH

Sara Fuller, MPH, CHES

Arlene Hull, MS, CES

Jan Nissl, RN, BS

Robin Parks, MS, MSTC

Chad Parmet, BA

Echo Savage, MA

Associate Editors

Terrina Coffer, BA

Michele Cronen

Denele Ivins, BA

Tracy Landauer, BA

Rebecca Whitaker, BA

Visual Content & Multimedia

Eleanor Bailey, MA

Paul Bush, BS

Angela Heileson, BFA

Brian Igeleman, BA

Casey Miller, BA

Tamara Shores, MA

Mike Ulrich, BFA

Samantha Zimmerman

Medical Research Library

Karri Alderson, MLIS

Localization, Print, & Translation

Lucia Alzaga, MA, ATA

Victoria Banales, MA, PhD, ATA

Doug Dana, BA

Tara Records, BS, CLPM

Jeff Walk, BA

Last updated: March 2018

Healthwise® Knowledgebase Editorial Policy and Processes

The field of medicine changes constantly.
Each day headlines reveal new ways to diagnose, treat, or prevent health problems. Through a comprehensive topic development process, the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase content is regularly updated to keep pace with the changes in medicine and medical practice.

See What's New in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase for the current release.

Content Written by Healthwise

Healthwise develops content through the collaborative efforts of content and
medical teams using a comprehensive research and review process.

The Healthwise content team includes full-time professional
medical researchers, writers, and editors who have extensive experience in
scientific research and medical writing. They work closely with members of the
Healthwise medical team, including the chief medical officer, the medical
director, the associate medical directors, and the Healthwise Medical
Review Board.

The Healthwise Medical Review Board includes more than 220 health professionals and medical specialists who review Healthwise content from a specialist's point of view. Their credentials include board certification, licensure/registration and/or certification, academic appointments at leading medical schools, involvement in research, and publication in peer-reviewed journals and medical textbooks. Most important, they share the Healthwise commitment to empowering patients with reliable health information and building strong patient-provider relationships.

Healthwise content starts with evidence-based information. Content team members are experts at presenting
balanced, unbiased perspectives without influence from commercial interests.
Our Conflict of Interest policy enforces our editorial integrity: "All Healthwise personnel should avoid situations where their personal
interests could conflict, or reasonably appear to conflict, with the interests
of Healthwise. In this regard, personnel must avoid any outside financial
interest that might influence, or appear to influence, their corporate
decisions or actions."

Topic Development Process

There are four primary
steps in the development process: planning, research, writing, and
review.

  • Writers, editors, and associate medical
    directors work together to plan the topic.
  • Medical librarians develop a research packet for each topic based on extensive research and evaluation of biomedical literature. Research packets include evidence-based journal and database search results, gold standard textbook chapters, guideline statements, and outcome studies, as well as consumer health information.
  • Writing and review cycles include
    collaboration among medical directors and other clinicians. Writers and editors also collaborate to ensure that the content is in plain language, follows literacy standards, and meets user-centered learning theory and behavior-change principles.
  • An associate medical director and at least one
    specialist review topics during the development process. They ensure accuracy and consistency
    with current practice standards and identify areas of important development.
    These independent medical reviewers ensure that
    Healthwise® Knowledgebase topics contain accurate,
    unbiased information.

New Topic Development

Healthwise selects new topics on
the basis of several criteria, including requests from consumers and
organizations using the Healthwise® Knowledgebase,
prevalence of the condition, and the potential of shared decision-making for consumers who have the condition.

Updating Topics

Healthwise updates topics when warranted
by changes in medical practice. The content and medical teams
continually review medical news sources and journals so they can quickly identify
changes that affect the practice of medicine. When important changes occur,
we update topics and include them in the next quarterly release of the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase. In addition,
Healthwise reviews and updates topics on a regular basis.

Organizations and people using the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase may suggest changes or
additions to topics. Healthwise considers these recommendations during the topic
development process and includes them in our updates if they meet our standard
criteria and pass the medical review process. If a suggested change applies
only to a particular sponsoring organization's readers, and if it passes
medical review, then we may make the change for that organization's customized version
of the Healthwise® Knowledgebase. Any change to
the Healthwise® Knowledgebase must first pass
medical review.

The last revised date is at the bottom
of every topic page and in the credits section of each topic.

Citing the Evidence

The Healthwise® Knowledgebase contains thousands of unique references to help readers find more information on topics. Our processes and policies ensure that entry points of content give readers reasonable access to references. We include citations that:

  • Support statistics, particularly those that play a key role in decision making.
  • Support outcomes, effectiveness, or risk data.
  • Identify testing or treatment recommendations or guidelines.
  • Support prevalence data.

Also, for all self-assessment or risk analysis tools in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase, we provide information that describes the source of the tool, the scientific basis for the tool, how the tool is maintained on the website, the evaluation process, and the last revised date.

Content Written by Third
Parties

Cerner Multum, Inc., Drug Reference (not included in all systems)

The drug reference
included in the Healthwise® Knowledgebase is
provided by Cerner Multum, Inc., of Denver, Colorado.

Multum updates daily. New information is incorporated
into a database as soon as it appears in the literature or in product labeling.
Doctors and pharmacists review the new information and make any necessary
changes. Multum conducts weekly Current Content searches on all of its drugs, and it surveys all key periodicals. All leaflets are reviewed by one or
more practicing clinical specialists. Healthwise receives monthly updates from
Multum. The updates are included in the quarterly releases of the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase.

Conflict of
Interest Policy: Multum's content is authored by full-time associates with no
affiliations with drug companies. Consultants who work with the information in
other capacities are required to have no conflicts of interest.

The date of the last update is at the end of each topic.

National Cancer Institute (NCI) Topics

NCI Physician Data Query (PDQ®) topics in the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase are provided by the
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Public Health
Service, Department of Health and Human Services.

All PDQ cancer
information summaries are peer-reviewed and updated monthly by six editorial
boards of oncology specialists in adult treatment, pediatric treatment,
supportive care, complementary and alternative medicine, screening, prevention,
and cancer genetics. They review current literature from more than 70
biomedical journals, evaluate its relevance, and synthesize it into concise,
clear summaries. Healthwise receives monthly updates from the National Cancer
Institute. The updates are included in the quarterly releases of the
Healthwise® Knowledgebase.

Conflict of
Interest Policy: PDQ Editorial Board members are selected by the
editor-in-chief of each board. Potential biases or conflicts of interest are
discussed as part of the selection process.

The date of the last
update is at the end of each topic.

AISLE7 TM/Healthnotes®

Headquartered in Portland, Oregon,
Healthnotes, Inc., dba AISLE7 is the premier provider of reliable, easy-to-use
health, food, and lifestyle information.

Each year AISLE7 reviews
tens of thousands of articles and more than 600 medical and scientific journals
to ensure that the content stays current, factual, and balanced. Citations
identify the source, the authors, and where and when the information was first
published. The AISLE7 editorial team includes medical doctors, pharmacists,
chiropractors, naturopaths, and dietitians. The Medical Advisory Board includes
medical doctors and experts affiliated with leading medical schools, such as
the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.

Healthwise receives quarterly updates from AISLE7. The updates are included in the quarterly
releases of the Healthwise®Knowledgebase.

The date of the last review is at the end of each topic.

Last updated: November 2016

Healthwise Quality Standards

Healthwise is committed
to providing consumers with high-quality health information so that they can
make wise health decisions in partnership with their doctors. We adhere to the
following principles:

  • We will create health information that is in
    the consumer's best interest.
  • We will not allow commercial
    interests to determine our content.
  • We pledge to protect the
    privacy of individuals using our website.
  • We provide referenced,
    frequently updated, evidence-based health information.
  • We will not knowingly post or publish health content that contains false or misleading claims or promotes ineffective or dangerous products.

Healthwise ensures compliance with these principles through
internal review and URAC accreditation.

Last
updated: November 2015

Date adopted: May 2005

Healthwise Advertising Policy

Healthwise does not
include advertisements in the Healthwise®
Knowledgebase; however, sponsoring organizations may include advertisements
outside but adjacent to Healthwise® Knowledgebase
content. These advertisements may have been selected based upon the specific
topic being viewed. Advertisements are controlled by the sponsoring
organization. For more information, check the advertisement policy of the
sponsoring organization.

Last updated: August
2007

Date adopted: August 2000

Healthwise Ownership and Funding Disclosure

Healthwise is committed to producing quality health information for
consumers so that they can make wise decisions with their doctors. Healthwise
health information is not determined by commercial interests.

Healthwise is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit organization.

Healthwise receives revenue from the following sources:

  • Sale of self-care guides
  • Licensing
    of health content and software products to hospitals, health plans, employers,
    health websites and other organizations. Healthwise may receive revenue based
    on advertising and e-commerce revenue that is generated on our clients' websites.
  • Grants from foundations and government
    agencies
  • Other sources that account for minimal revenues

Last updated: August 2007

Date
adopted: August 2000