Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Quitting Tobacco

Discusses nicotine replacement therapy to quit smoking. Describes how it works and why it is used. Covers nicotine gum and lozenges, nicotine patches, and nicotine inhaler. Discusses side effects of each method.

Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Quitting Tobacco

Examples

Generic NameBrand Name
nicotine Commit, Habitrol, Nicoderm CQ, Nicorette, Nicotrol

Nicotine gum and lozenges release nicotine slowly into
the mouth.

Nicotine patches stick to your skin and
slowly release nicotine through the skin into your bloodstream.

The
nicotine inhaler has a holder that contains nicotine.
The inhaler delivers a puff of nicotine vapor into your mouth and
throat.

You can buy nicotine gum, patches, and lozenges without a
prescription. You do need a prescription to buy nicotine inhalers.

Note: Nonprescription nicotine replacement therapy
products cannot be sold legally to people younger than age 18. A doctor may
prescribe one of these products if a person younger than 18 is dependent on
nicotine.

How It Works

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) helps
reduce
nicotine withdrawal and craving by supplying your body
with nicotine. It contains about one-third to one-half the amount of nicotine
found in most cigarettes.

People become dependent on the nicotine
in cigarettes because it increases the levels of certain chemicals, such as
dopamine and norepinephrine, in their brains. When people quit smoking, the
levels of those chemicals drop. Their bodies react by having nicotine
withdrawal symptoms such as grouchiness and hunger.

Nicotine from medicines
increases the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine just like nicotine from
cigarettes does. Chemical levels in the brain are kept level so that withdrawal
symptoms are reduced. This can temporarily replace the nicotine that a person got from smoking cigarettes. Nicotine replacement can be used in smaller and smaller amounts until a person no longer needs it.

When you inhale tobacco smoke, the nicotine
in the smoke moves quickly from your lungs into your bloodstream. The nicotine
in replacement products takes much longer to get into your system. This is why
nicotine replacement medicines are much less likely to cause dependence on
nicotine than are cigarettes and other tobacco products.

Nicotine
replacement therapy is safe when used properly. Nicotine by itself is not
nearly as harmful as smoking. Tars, carbon monoxide, and other toxic chemicals
in tobacco cause harmful effects, not the nicotine.

Why It Is Used

Nicotine replacement therapy is
useful for most people who are trying to quit smoking.

Nicotine
replacement therapy may not be right for you if you are pregnant or have heart
disease.

  • Pregnancy. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant and want
    to stop smoking, talk to your doctor before you decide how to do it. During
    pregnancy, most doctors will recommend that you try other ways to stop before
    they will suggest a nicotine replacement product.
  • Heart disease. Nicotine replacement therapy has
    been shown to be safe in most people with heart disease. But if you recently
    had a heart attack or if you have serious heart problems, such as an irregular
    or rapid heartbeat (arrhythmia) or chest pain (angina),
    consult your doctor before you use nicotine replacement products.

Doctors do not often recommend nicotine replacement
therapy for people younger than 18, largely because the products have been
tested only on adults. The side effects of nicotine replacement therapy for
young people are not well known. If a teen smokes daily and has had withdrawal when trying to quit, sometimes a doctor will prescribe nicotine products.

How Well It Works

Using some form of nicotine
replacement therapy doubles your chances of quitting smoking.footnote 1 All forms of nicotine replacement products appear
to be about equally effective when used properly.

Combining the
use of the nicotine patch with another form of nicotine replacement therapy, such as the gum, increases your chances of success. Talk to your doctor before you
combine NRTs.

Your chances of quitting are best when you combine
nicotine replacement therapy with a complete smoking cessation program that
includes setting a quit date, having a plan in place for dealing with
smoking triggers, and getting support from a doctor,
counselor, or support group.

Side Effects

Since all NRTs appear to work equally
well, many smokers choose a treatment based on how easy it is to use and what
possible side effects it may cause. All forms of nicotine replacement have side
effects, but the types of side effects differ across NRTs. Very few people
(less than 5%) have to stop using a nicotine replacement product because of
side effects.

Stopping nicotine replacement therapy abruptly may
cause some of the same withdrawal symptoms that occur when you stop smoking
cigarettes. You are less likely to have withdrawal symptoms if you gradually
decrease the dose or number of uses of the specific therapy each day.

It is possible for a person to become dependent on a nicotine replacement
product, although this is rare.

Gum

Side effects of nicotine gum may
include:

  • A bad taste from the gum. A mint and a citrus
    flavor are available. And most people find they taste much
    better.
  • A tingling feeling on the tongue while chewing the
    gum.
  • Hiccups.
  • Upset stomach (nausea) or heartburn. This
    is sometimes caused by improper use, such as chewing the gum without "parking"
    it between your cheek and gum.
  • Jaw pain caused by chewing. Nicotine gum is not recommended for
    people who have problems with the jaw joint (temporomandibular, or TM,
    disorders).

Lozenge

Side effects of nicotine lozenges may
include:

  • Upset stomach, especially if you swallow the
    lozenge.
  • Hiccups.
  • Heartburn.
  • Headache.
  • Excessive
    gas (flatulence).

Patch

Side effects of nicotine patches may
include:

  • A skin rash at the location of the patch.
    This may be a reaction either to the sticky backing on the patch or to the
    nicotine. People with sensitive skin or allergies to adhesive should not use
    the patch. Moving the patch to a different part of your body or using a
    nonprescription antihistamine cream, ointment, or gel (such as Benadryl) may
    relieve some of the discomfort.
  • Sleep problems when using a
    24-hour patch, such as having trouble sleeping or having especially vivid
    dreams. This is because your brain isn't used to getting nicotine when you are
    sleeping. Removing the patch a few hours before you go to sleep may help reduce this side effect.
    If the sleep problem is a nicotine withdrawal symptom, not a side effect,
    removing the patch may not help. Talk with your doctor if you have sleep
    problems.

Inhaler

Side effects of nicotine inhalers may
include:

  • A cough.
  • A scratchy
    throat.
  • An upset stomach.

The nicotine inhaler may not be a good choice if you have
a breathing problem, such as asthma, allergies, or a sinus condition.

See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects.
(Drug Reference is not available in all systems.)

What To Think About

If you slip or smoke a little, don't give up. Talk to someone who has quit smoking or to a counselor, to get ideas for what to do. If you are taking medicines or using nicotine replacement, keep doing so unless you go back to regular smoking. Using nicotine medicines and smoking rarely causes you to use too much nicotine. Symptoms of too much nicotine are headaches, nausea, confusion, and vomiting. If
you think you have overdosed, call your doctor right away.

Regardless of the method you use to quit smoking, you may cough more or
start coughing for the first week after you quit. This is not a symptom of
withdrawal from nicotine. It is the result of your body trying to clear your
lungs. This happens whether you use nicotine replacement therapy or not.

With nicotine gum, lozenges, and the inhaler, not taking enough each day is a
common cause of relapse.

Avoid drinking beverages, especially acidic beverages
(such as coffee, juices, and soda pop) for 15 minutes before and after you use
these products. Your body may not absorb the nicotine well because of the acid
in these drinks.

Choosing a form of nicotine replacement therapy is usually a matter of personal choice. If you smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day, or you smoke within 30 minutes of waking up in the morning, use the highest dose of a product, whether it is gum, lozenges, the patch, or a combination of NRT.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says it's okay to start using a nicotine replacement
product on your quit date, even if you aren't able to stop smoking right away.

If you find you cannot continue to use one form of
nicotine replacement because of its side effects, stop using that form and try
a different one. Remember, using nicotine replacement products doubles your
chances of quitting smoking.footnote 1

Long-term use of nicotine gum has not been found to be
harmful.

Nicotine replacement therapy will reduce most but not all
of the
nicotine withdrawal, craving, and other symptoms associated with
quitting smoking.

By the time you finish nicotine replacement
therapy, you will have greatly decreased your dependence on nicotine. You also
will have started to get used to not smoking at the usual times. This will take
longer for people who have smoked for many years. And it may mean using nicotine
replacement products for several weeks or months. Stopping nicotine replacement
therapy too early is a common cause of relapse. When you finally reduce your
nicotine intake to zero, you still may have some symptoms of nicotine
withdrawal
. But these symptoms won't last. Using nicotine replacement products
makes symptoms less severe.

Talk to your doctor before you use two
forms of nicotine replacement (such as a nicotine patch and nicotine gum) at
the same time.

Using bupropion and nicotine replacement products
together may work well for some people who smoke. But it should be tried only
under a doctor's care. Your doctor may recommend bupropion alone instead of
using two medicines.

Nicotine nasal spray (Nicotrol) is a prescription medicine that delivers more nicotine but often causes side effects. It is not widely
used.

Complete the new medication information form (PDF) ( What is a PDF document? ) to help you understand this medication.

References

Citations

  1. Stead LF, et al. (2012). Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11).

Credits

ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical Reviewer Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine Specialist Medical Reviewer Michael F. Bierer, MD - Internal Medicine,

Current as ofNovember 29, 2017