Top of the pageCheck Your Symptoms
Sunlight can help our mental outlook and help us feel healthier. For people who have suntan makes a person look young and healthy. But sunlight can be harmful to the skin, causing immediate problems as well as problems that may develop years later., the sun's warmth can help relieve some of their physical pain. Many people also think that a
A ultraviolet (UV) rays. Most sunburns cause mild pain and redness but affect only the outer layer of skin (first-degree burn). The red skin might hurt when you touch it. These are mild and can usually be treated at home.is skin damage from the sun's
Skin that is red and painful and that swells up and second-degree burn). This type of is usually more painful and takes longer to heal.may mean that deep skin layers and nerve endings have been damaged (
Other problems that can be present along withinclude:
- Heatstroke or other from too much sun exposure.
- medicines. to sun exposure, sunscreen products, or
- Vision problems, such as burning pain, decreased vision, or partial or complete vision loss.
Long-term problems include:
- An increased chance of having .
- An increase in the number of cold sores.
- An increase in problems related to a health condition, such as lupus.
- Cataracts, from not protecting your eyes from direct or indirect sunlight over many years. are one of the leading causes of blindness.
- , such as premature wrinkling or brown spots.
Your skin type affects how easily you become sunburned. People with fair or freckled skin, blond or red hair, and blue eyes usually easily.
Although people with darker skin don't sunburn as easily, they can still get. So it's important to use sun protection, no matter what your skin color is.
Youralso affects how your skin reacts to the sun. The skin of children younger than 6 and adults older than 60 is more sensitive to sunlight.
You may get a more severedepending on:
- The time of day. You are more likely to get a between 10 in the morning and 4 in the afternoon, when the sun's rays are the strongest. You might think the chance of getting a on cloudy days is less, but the sun's damaging UV light can pass through clouds.
- Whether you are near reflective surfaces, such as water, white sand, concrete, snow, and ice. All of these reflect the sun's rays and can cause .
- The season of the year. The position of the sun on summer days can cause a more severe .
- Altitude. It is easy to get sunburned at higher altitudes, because there is less of the earth's atmosphere to block the sunlight. UV exposure increases about 4% for every 1000 ft (305 m) gain in elevation.
- How close you are to the equator (latitude). The closer you are to the equator, the more direct sunlight passes through the atmosphere. For example, the southern United States gets 1.5 times more sunlight than the northern United States.
- The UV index of the day, which shows the risk of getting a that day.
Preventive measures and home treatment are usually all that is needed to prevent or treat a.
- Protect your skin from the sun.
- Do not stay in the sun too long.
- Use sunscreens, and wear clothing that covers your skin.
If you have any health risks that may increase the seriousness of sun exposure, you should avoid being in the sun from 10 in the morning to 4 in the afternoon.
Check your symptoms to decide if and when you should see a doctor.
Check Your Symptoms
Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind
of care you may need. These include:
- Your age. Babies and older
adults tend to get sicker quicker.
- Your overall health. If you have a condition such as
disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care
sooner. , HIV, cancer, or heart
- Medicines you take. Certain
medicines, herbal remedies, and supplements can cause symptoms or make them
- Recent health events, such as surgery
or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them
- Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug
use, sexual history, and travel.
Try Home Treatment
You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be
able to take care of this problem at home.
- Try home treatment to relieve the
- Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any
concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect).
You may need care sooner.
Symptoms of infection may
- Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in or
around the area.
- Red streaks leading from the area.
- Pus draining from the area.
- A .
You can get dehydrated when
you lose a lot of fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.
- You may feel tired and edgy (mild
you may feel weak, not alert, and not able to think clearly (severe
). ), or
- You may pass less urine than usual (mild
), or you may not be passing urine at all (severe
- Your mouth and eyes may be extremely
- You may pass little or no urine for 12 or more
- You may not feel alert or be able to think
- You may be too weak or dizzy to stand.
- You may
- You may be a lot more thirsty than
- Your mouth and eyes may be drier than usual.
- You may
pass little or no urine for 8 or more hours.
- You may feel dizzy
when you stand or sit up.
- You may be more thirsty than usual.
- You may pass less urine than usual.
- The baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake
- The baby may have a very dry mouth and very dry eyes (no
- The baby may have no wet diapers in 12 or more hours.
- The baby may have no wet diapers in 6 hours.
baby may have a dry mouth and dry eyes (fewer than usual).
- The baby may pass a little less urine than usual.
If you're not sure if a
think about these issues:
With a high:
- You feel very hot.
- It is likely one of
the highest you've ever had. High are not that common, especially
With a moderate:
- You feel warm or hot.
- You know you have
With a mild:
- You may feel a little warm.
- You think
you might have a , but you're not sure.
Pain in adults and older children
- Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain
is so bad that you can't stand it for more than a few hours, can't sleep, and
can't do anything else except focus on the pain.
- Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt your
normal activities and your sleep, but you can tolerate it for hours or days.
Moderate can also mean pain that comes and goes even if it's severe when it's
- Mild pain (1 to 4): You notice the pain,
but it is not bad enough to disrupt your sleep or activities.
Pain in children under 3 years
It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.
- Severe pain (8 to 10): The
pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries
constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or
- Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is
very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds
when you try to comfort him or her.
- Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds
when you try to comfort him or her.
Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the
illness. Some examples in adults are:
- Diseases such as
and HIV/ . , cancer, heart disease,
- Long-term .
- Steroid medicines, which may be used to treat a variety
- Chemotherapy and
- Other medicines used to treat autoimmune
- Medicines taken after .
having a .
Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause the
skin to sunburn more easily. A few common examples are:
- Some antibiotics.
(such as Advil or Motrin), and naproxen (such as Aleve). , ibuprofen
products that contain A or alpha hydroxy acids (AHA).
- Some medicines that you take by mouth.
Symptoms of an
- A rash, or raised, red areas called
- Feeling or acting very confused, restless, or
- Trouble breathing.
- Sweating heavily, or not
sweating at all (sweating may have stopped).
- Skin that is red,
hot, and dry, even in the armpits.
- Nausea and vomiting.
occurs when the body can't control its own
temperature and continues to rise.
Seek Care Now
Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.
- Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and
arrange for care.
- If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have
one, seek care in the next hour.
- You do not need to call an
- You cannot travel safely either by driving
yourself or by having someone else drive you.
- You are in an area
where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.
- You cannot travel safely either by driving
Seek Care Today
Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The
problem probably will not get better without medical care.
- Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms
and arrange for care.
- If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't
have one, seek care today.
- If it is evening, watch the symptoms and
seek care in the morning.
- If the symptoms get worse, seek care
Call 911 Now
Based on your answers, you need
Call 911 or other emergency services now.
Home treatment measures may provide some relief from a mild.
- Use cool cloths on sunburned areas.
- Take frequent cool showers or baths.
- Apply soothing lotions that contain aloe vera to sunburned areas. Topical steroids (such as 1% hydrocortisone cream) may also help with sunburn pain and swelling. Note: Do not use the cream on children younger than age 2 unless your doctor tells you to. Do not use in the rectal or vaginal area in children younger than age 12 unless your doctor tells you to.
There is little you can do to stop skin from peeling after a sunburnâ€”it is part of the healing process. Lotion may help relieve the itching.
Other home treatment measures, such as , may help relieve your sunburn symptoms.
Try a nonprescription medicine to help treat your fever or pain:
Talk to your child's doctor before switching back and forth between doses ofand ibuprofen. When you switch between two medicines, there is a chance your child will get too much medicine.
Be sure to follow these safety tips when you use a nonprescription medicine:
Care of blisters
Home treatment may help decrease pain, prevent infection, and help the skin heal.
- A small, unbroken about the size of a pea, even a blood blister, will usually heal on its own. Use a loose bandage to protect it. Avoid the activity that caused the .
- If a small doughnut-shaped moleskin pad. Leave the area over the open. is on a weight-bearing area like the bottom of the foot, protect it with a
- If a
is large and painful, it may be best to drain it. Here is a safe method:
- Wipe a needle with rubbing alcohol.
- Gently puncture the edge of the .
- Press the fluid in the toward the hole so it can drain out.
- If you have a condition such as , HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you do not want to drain a because of the risk of infection.
- After you have opened a
, or if it has torn open:
- Gently wash the area with clean water. Do not use alcohol, iodine, or any other cleanser.
- Don't remove the flap of skin over a unless it's very dirty or torn or there is pus under it. Gently smooth the flap over the tender skin.
- You may cover the with a thin layer of petroleum jelly, such as Vaseline, and a nonstick bandage.
- Apply more petroleum jelly and replace the bandage as needed.
Watch for a skin infection while youris healing. Signs of infection include:
- Increased pain, swelling, redness, or warmth around the .
- Red streaks extending away from the .
- Drainage of pus from the .
Symptoms to watch for during home treatment
Call your doctor if any of the following occur during home treatment:
- Vision problems continue after you get out of the sun.
- develops and you are unable to drink enough to replace lost fluids.
- Signs of skin infection in develop.
- Symptoms become more severe or more frequent.
Protecting your skin
Use the following tips to protect your skin from the sun. You may decrease your chances of developingand help prevent wrinkles.
Avoid sun exposure
The best way to prevent ais to avoid sun exposure.
Stay out of the midday sun (from 10 in the morning to 4 in the afternoon), which is the strongest sunlight. Find shade if you need to be outdoors. You can also calculate how much ultraviolet (UV) exposure you are getting by using the shadow rule: A shadow that is longer than you are means UV exposure is low; a shadow that is shorter than you are means the UV exposure is high.
Other ways to protect yourself from the sun include wearing protective clothing, such as:
- Hats with wide 4 in. (10 cm) brims that cover your neck, ears, eyes, and scalp.
- Sunglasses with UV ray protection, to prevent eye damage.
- Loose-fitting, tightly woven clothing that covers your arms and legs.
- Clothing made with sun protective fabric. These clothes have a special label that tells you how effective they are in protecting your skin from ultraviolet rays.
Preventing sun exposure in children
You should start protecting your child from the sun when he or she is a baby.
- It's safest to keep babies younger than 6 months out of the sun.
- Teach children the ABCs of how to protect their skin from getting sunburned.
- A = Away. Stay away from the sun as much as possible from 10 in the morning until 4 in the afternoon. Find shade if you need to be outdoors.
- B = Block. Use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher to protect babies' and children's very sensitive skin.
- C = Cover up. Wear clothing that covers the skin, hats with wide brims, and sunglasses with UV protection. Even children 1 year old should wear sunglasses with UV protection.
If you can't avoid being in the sun, use a sunscreen to help protect your skin while you are in the sun.
Be sure to read the information on the sunscreen label about the SPF factor listed on the label and how much protection it gives your skin. Follow the directions on the label for applying the sunscreen so it is most effective in's ultraviolet rays.
Choosing a sunscreen
- Sunscreens come in lotions, gels, creams, ointments, and sprays. Use a sunscreen that:
- Use lip balm or cream that has SPF of 30 or higher to protect your lips from getting sunburned.
- Take extra care to protect your skin when you're near water, at higher elevations, or in tropical climates.
Sunscreens labeled "water-resistant" are made to protect people while they are swimming or sweating. The label will say if the sunscreen will protect you for 40 minutes or 80 minutes.
Applying a sunscreen
- Apply the sunscreen at least 15 to 30 minutes before going in the sun.
- Apply sunscreen to all the skin that will be exposed to the sun, including the nose, ears, neck, scalp, and lips. Sunscreen needs to be applied evenly over the skin and in the amount recommended on the label. Most sunscreens are not completely effective because they are not applied correctly. It usually takes about 1 fl oz (30 mL) to cover an adult's body.
- Apply sunscreen every 2 to 3 hours while in the sun and after swimming or sweating a lot. The SPF value decreases if a person sweats heavily or is in water, because water on the skin reduces the amount of protection the sunscreen provides.
Other sunscreen tips
Remember that skin that is healing from ais sensitive to more damage from the sun, so be sure to prevent more in those areas. The following tips about sunscreen will help you use it more effectively:
- If your skin is sensitive to skin products or you have had a skin reaction ( ) to a sunscreen, use a sunscreen that is free of chemicals, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), preservatives, perfumes, and alcohol.
- If you are going to have high exposure to the sun, consider using a physical sunscreen, such as zinc oxide, which will stop most of the sunlight from reaching the skin.
- If you need to use sunscreen and with DEET, do not use a product that combines the two. You can apply sunscreen first and then apply the with DEET, but the sunscreen needs to be reapplied every 2 hours.
Do not use tanning booths to get a tan. Artificial tanning devices can cause skin damage and increase the risk of. If you want your skin to look tan, try a sunless tanning cream or spray that makes your skin look tan. And keep using sunscreen when you are in the sun.
For information on sun exposure and Getting Enough Vitamin D., see
Preparing For Your Appointment
You can help your doctor diagnose and treat your condition by being prepared to answer the following questions:
- What are your main symptoms?
- How long have you had your symptoms?
- Do you have ?
- What amount of time did you spend in the sun? Were you at a high altitude?
- Did you use sunscreen or sunblock, and what SPF was used?
- Have you had this problem before? If so, do you know what caused the problem at that time? How was it treated?
- What activities make your symptoms better or worse?
- What prescription or nonprescription medicines do you take?
- What home treatment measures have you tried? Did they help?
- What nonprescription medicines have you tried? Did they help?
- Do you have any health risks?
ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical Reviewer Patrice Burgess, MD, FAAFP - Family Medicine Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
Current as ofNovember 20, 2017