Urinary System

The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH. 

American Urological Association Symptom Index

The American Urological Association (AUA) has developed the following questionnaire to help men determine how bothersome their urinary symptoms are and to check how effective their treatment is. 1 This questionnaire has also been adopted worldwide and is known as the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). It is…

Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

What is anemia of chronic kidney disease? Anemia means that you do not have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to your body’s tissues. If your tissues and organs do not get enough oxygen, they cannot work as well as they should. Anemia is common in people who have chronic kidney…

Angiogram

An angiogram is an X-ray test that uses a special dye and camera ( fluoroscopy ) to take pictures of the blood flow in an artery (such as the aorta ) or a vein (such as the vena cava). An angiogram can be used to look at the arteries or veins in the head, arms, legs, chest, back, or belly. Common angiograms can look at…

Artificial Sphincter for Urinary Incontinence in Men

An artificial sphincter is a device made of silicone rubber that is used to treat urinary incontinence. An artificial sphincter has an inflatable cuff that fits around the urethra close to the point where it joins the bladder. A balloon regulates the pressure of the cuff, and a bulb controls inflation and deflation of…

Basic Metabolic Panel

Briefly discusses basic metabolic panel, a blood test that measures your sugar (glucose) level, electrolyte and fluid balance, and kidney function. Provides links to more info on specific tests such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and potassium tests.