Jerome B. Simon MD FRCPC FACP


Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)

An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. ALT is found mainly in the liver, but also in smaller amounts in the kidneys , heart, muscles, and pancreas . ALT was formerly called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). ALT is measured to see if the liver is damaged or…

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)

An aspartate aminotransferase (AST) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. AST is normally found in red blood cells, liver, heart, muscle tissue, pancreas, and kidneys. AST formerly was called serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). Low levels of AST are normally found in the blood. When body…

Barium Enema

Top of the pageBarium EnemaA barium enema, or lower gastrointestinal (GI) examination, is an X-ray examination of the large intestine (colon and rectum). The test is used to help find problems that affect the large intestine.To make the intestine visible on an X-ray...

Barium Swallow Pictures

Courtesy of Intermountain Medical Imaging, Boise, Idaho. All rights reserved. Figure 1 shows the lower end of a normal esophagus with a smooth connection between the lower esophagus and stomach. Figure 2 shows the lower end of the esophagus with a small hiatal hernia, which occurs when a small portion of the stomach…

Barium Enema

Discusses barium enema, a procedure used to help diagnose problems in the large intestine (colon and rectum). Covers why it’s done, how it’s done, and how to prepare. Looks at risks. Covers possible results.