Sarah A. Marshall MD


Nuchal Translucency Screening Test

The nuchal (say “NEW-kuhl”) translucency screening is a test done during pregnancy. It uses ultrasound to measure the thickness of the fluid buildup at the back of the developing baby’s neck. If this area is thicker than normal, it can be an early sign of Down syndrome, trisomy 18, or heart problems. The test is done…

Poor Let-Down While Breastfeeding

You sometimes may notice that your milk does not flow easily, or let down, when you attempt to breastfeed or use a breast pump. Emotional stress, fatigue, anxiety, smoking, pain, or being cold are common causes of poor let-down. With poor let-down, you may not experience the tingling and leaking of milk that usually…

Breech Position and Breech Birth

What is breech position? During most of pregnancy, there is enough room in the uterus for the baby (fetus) to change position. By 36 weeks of pregnancy, most babies turn into a head-down position. This is the normal and safest fetal position for birth. But in about 4 out of 100 births, the baby doesn’t naturally turn…

Electronic Fetal Heart Monitoring

Electronic fetal heart monitoring is done during pregnancy, labor, and delivery. It keeps track of the heart rate of your baby ( fetus ). It also checks the duration of the contractions of your uterus. Your baby’s heart rate is a good way to tell if your baby is doing well or may have some problems. Two types of…

Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC)

What is a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)? If you have had a cesarean delivery (also called a C-section) before, you may be able to deliver your next baby vaginally. This is called vaginal birth after cesarean, or VBAC. Most women, whether they deliver vaginally or by C-section , don’t have serious problems from…