Stephen Fort MD MRCP FRCPC

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease happens when fatty deposits called plaque (say “plak”) build up inside your coronary arteries. This process of plaque buildup is called atherosclerosis. Coronary arteries are the blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to your heart. Plaque buildup may reduce the amount of blood that gets to…


The pericardium is a membrane like a sac that surrounds the heart and its major blood vessels. Normally there is a small amount of fluid between the pericardium and the heart that helps cushion the heart and reduces friction between the heart and the pericardium when the heart beats.

Heart Failure Symptoms

If you have heart failure, symptoms start to happen when your heart cannot pump enough blood to the rest of your body. Shortness of breath While shortness of breath is the most common symptom of heart failure, it may be difficult or impossible to distinguish it from shortness of breath caused by other health problems…

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Test

Gives info on test for BNP hormone to tell how well the heart works. Tells how BNP checks for heart failure. Tells how to get ready for test. Includes what results mean. Also discusses things that affect test results, such as some health problems and medicines.

Classification of Heart Failure

The following is a classification for heart failure devised by the New York Heart Association (NYHA). It is important to be familiar with this classification, because it may be referred to during the course of your care. Classification of heart failure symptoms Class I People whose physical activity is not limited…