Stephen Fort MD MRCP FRCPC


Heart Failure

Describes heart failure (congestive heart failure). Discusses common causes like hypertension and coronary artery disease. Has info on symptoms. Covers diagnostic tests and treatments. Discusses heart failure classification system and stages of CHF.

Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusion is a buildup of fluid in the space between the heart and the sac around the heart (pericardium). The extra fluid can be caused by many things. Some causes are pericarditis (inflammation of the sac), heart attack, surgery, kidney failure, infection, some cancers, and certain diseases such as lupus…

Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (Systolic Heart Failure)

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) happens when the left side of your heart doesn’t pump blood out to the body as well as normal. It’s sometimes called systolic heart failure. This is because your left ventricle doesn’t squeeze forcefully enough during systole, which is the phase of your heartbeat when…

Aortic valve

The aortic valve has three flaps that work like a one-way gate. When the heart pumps, the aortic valve opens to allow oxygen-rich blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta. When the heart rests between beats, the aortic valve closes to keep blood from flowing backward into the heart.

Constrictive Pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis is stiffening and thickening of the membrane sac around the heart (pericardium). It restricts the heart’s ability to pump effectively. Constrictive pericarditis can be caused by medical conditions or treatments that involve inflammation. These include viral infections, radiation therapy, and…