Susan C. Kim MD


Cerebral Cortex

The cerebral cortex is the wrinkled gray covering of the uppermost and largest part of the brain, the cerebrum. The functions of the cerebral cortex include the perception of sensations, learning, reasoning, memory, making decisions and judgments, and controlling emotion.

Sensory and Motor Development, Ages 12 to 24 Months

Learning to walk is the defining athletic accomplishment for children between 12 and 24 months of age. Those first steps are possible because of changes taking place within the brain and the spinal cord. Coordination and muscle control advance as the brain grows and matures. Most children start walking by 13 months of…

Blocked Eustachian Tubes

What are the eustachian tubes, and how do they get blocked? The eustachian (say “you-STAY-shee-un”) tubes connect the middle ears to the back of the throat. The tubes help the ears drain fluid. They also keep air pressure in the ears at the right level. When you swallow or yawn, the tubes open briefly to let air in to…

Language Development Between 12 and 24 Months of Age

Between 12 and 24 months of age, changes in the brain help your toddler learn and understand language. Most toddlers understand many more words than they are able to speak. For example, they are often able to point to their nose or eyes or other body parts when asked, even though they may not say the words for them. The…

Emotional and Social Development, Ages 12 to 24 Months

Toddlers form strong emotional attachments and often feel uneasy when they are separated from their loved ones. Around the same time, toddlers typically want to do things on their own or according to their own wishes. This sets the stage for conflict, confusion, and occasional breakdowns. Toddlers typically develop two…