Rakesh K. Pai MD FACC


American Heart Association Healthy Diet Guidelines

The American Heart Association (AHA) publishes dietary and lifestyle recommendations for general heart health. 1 These recommendations are for healthy adults and children older than age 2 as well as people who already have health problems such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or heart failure…

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)

A doctor places an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (also called an ICD) in the chest. The ICD has one or two wires called leads. These leads go into the heart through the subclavian vein (transvenous). Some ICDs have a lead that is placed under the skin so that it lies near your heart (subcutaneous). The ICD…

Aortic valve replacement surgery

In open-heart surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the middle of the chest Aortic valve replacement surgery may be done as an open-heart surgery or as a less invasive surgery. In open-heart surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the middle of the chest and cuts through the breastbone (sternum). In less invasive…