Sarah Marshall MD


Leg Cramps During Pregnancy

Leg cramps affect almost half of all pregnant women. 1 The cause of leg cramps during pregnancy is not fully known, but they may be caused by reduced levels of calcium or increased levels of phosphorus in the blood. Leg cramps are more common in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and happen most often at…

Breastfeeding: How to Use a Breast Pump

Using a breast pump is a good way to provide the benefits of breastfeeding when you have to be away from your baby. Pumping will help keep up your milk supply and prevent discomfort and breast engorgement. You can also use a breast pump to slowly reduce your milk supply if you have to stop breastfeeding suddenly. There…

Quick Tips: Successful Breastfeeding

Some aspects of breastfeeding may come naturally. But learning some breastfeeding skills and techniques can help you be more successful. Before your baby is born, take classes, read books, and watch videos that demonstrate breastfeeding techniques. If you have concerns about your ability to breastfeed, talk to a…

Miscarriage

Is this topic for you? This topic is about the loss of a baby before 20 weeks of pregnancy. For information about the loss of a baby after 20 weeks of pregnancy but before the baby is born, see the topic Stillbirth. What is a miscarriage? A miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy during the first 20 weeks. It is usually…

Cervical Cerclage

Cervical cerclage is a rarely used type of surgery that involves sewing shut the outlet of the uterus (cervix) to prevent it from opening before a pregnancy is carried to early term (week 37). Cervical cerclage may be used for a woman who has given birth prematurely in a previous pregnancy and had minimal or no…