Sickle Cell Disorders
- Sickle cell disease (hemoglobin SS disease) occurs when both genes produce hemoglobin S. This person typically has symptoms of anemia, mild to life-threatening complications, and a shortened life span.
- Sickle beta-thalassemia occurs when a person has one hemoglobin S gene and another gene that causes the body to produce less hemoglobin than normal. This person may have mild to severe sickle cell disease.
- Hemoglobin SC disease occurs when a person has one hemoglobin S gene and one abnormal hemoglobin C gene. This person may have generally milder symptoms and a longer life span than a person with sickle cell disease but still may become seriously ill.
- Hemoglobin SE disease occurs when a person has one hemoglobin S gene and one abnormal hemoglobin E gene. This person may have mild anemia. Most people do not have symptoms.
- Hemoglobin SO disease and hemoglobin SD disease occur when a person has one hemoglobin S gene and one abnormal hemoglobin O or hemoglobin D gene. This person may experience all sickle cell disease symptoms, ranging from mild to severe.
Other Works Consulted
- Natarajan K, et al. (2010). Disorders of hemoglobin structure: Sickle cell anemia and related abnormalities. In K Kaushansky et al., eds., Williams Hematology, 8th ed., pp. 709–741. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Wang WC (2009). Sickle cell anemia and other sickling syndromes. In JP Greer et al., eds., Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology, 12th ed., pp. 1038–1082. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.