Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic

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Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic

Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic

Topic Overview

Is this topic for you?

This topic is about
prostate cancer that has spread or come back after treatment. For information on prostate cancer that has not spread outside the prostate (localized prostate cancer), see the topic Prostate Cancer.

What is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is a group of cells that grows faster than normal in a
man's prostate gland. It can spread into other areas and kill normal
tissue.

The
prostate gland sits just below a man's bladder. It makes part of the fluid for
semen. In young men, the prostate is about the size of
a walnut. It usually grows larger as you grow older.

The cancer
may be one of these types:

  • Locally advanced prostate cancer. This is cancer that
    has grown through the outer rim of the prostate and into nearby tissue.
  • Metastatic prostate cancer. This is cancer that has
    spread, or metastasized, to the
    lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
  • Recurrent prostate cancer. This is cancer that has
    come back after it was treated. The cancer can come back in the prostate, near
    the prostate, or in another part of the body. If it comes back in another part
    of the body—often the bones—it is still called prostate cancer, because it
    started in the prostate.

What causes prostate cancer?

Experts don't know what causes prostate cancer. But they believe that
getting older and having a family history of prostate cancer raise your chance
of getting it.

What are the symptoms?

Sometimes there are no symptoms of either locally
advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.

When they do appear,
symptoms of locally advanced prostate cancer include:

  • Waking up many times during the night to urinate.
  • Having trouble starting your urine stream, having a
    weaker-than-normal stream, or not being able to urinate at all.
  • Having pain or a burning feeling when you urinate.
  • Having blood in your urine.
  • Having a deep pain or stiffness in your lower back, upper
    thighs, or hips.

Symptoms of metastatic prostate cancer may include:

  • Bone pain.
  • Weight loss.
  • Swelling in your legs and feet.

How is prostate cancer diagnosed?

A blood test called a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common way to check for prostate cancer. A higher level of PSA may mean that you have prostate cancer or that your prostate cancer has come
back.

Your doctor also may do a
biopsy. In this test, your doctor takes samples of
tissue from your prostate gland or from the area where the cancer may have
spread and sends the samples to a lab for testing. A biopsy is the only way to
know for sure that you have prostate cancer.

If you have had
prostate cancer before, your doctor may also order a
bone scan,
CT scan, or
MRI to see if it has come back or spread.

Learning that you have cancer that has spread or come back can be very hard. Some people find that it helps to talk about their feelings with their family and friends. You may also want to talk with your doctor or with other people who have had this kind of cancer. Your local American Cancer Society chapter can help you find a support group.

How is it treated?

Your treatment choices depend on your overall health,
how fast the cancer is growing, and how far it has spread.

Locally advanced prostate cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation
therapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these.

Treatment of metastatic cancer
focuses on slowing the spread of the cancer and relieving symptoms, such as
bone pain. It also can help you feel better and live longer. Treatment may
include hormone therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

Men over age 80 or those with other serious health problems may decide not to have treatment except for what is needed to treat any symptoms (watchful waiting).

Frequently Asked Questions

Learning about prostate cancer:

Being diagnosed:

Getting treatment:

Ongoing concerns:

Living with prostate cancer:

End-of-life issues:

Health Tools

Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.

Cause

The exact cause of
prostate cancer is not known, but experts believe your
age and family history may have something to do with your chances of getting
the disease. Prostate cancer is very common and is an older man's disease. Most
men who get it are older than 65.

Symptoms

Prostate cancer may not cause noticeable
symptoms. Possible symptoms of
locally advanced prostate cancer are:

  • Urinary problems, such as:
    • Not being able to urinate at all.
    • Having a hard time starting or stopping the flow of urine.
    • Having to urinate often, especially at night.
    • Having pain or burning during urination.
  • Difficulty having an erection.
  • Blood in your urine or semen.
  • Deep and frequent pain in your lower back, belly, hip, or pelvis.

These symptoms also may be caused by:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an
    enlarged prostate. This is very common in older men. The prostate usually grows
    larger with age. When it gets large enough, it can press against the urethra
    and cause urination problems.
  • Prostatitis, an infection in the prostate.
  • Urinary tract infection, an infection in any of the
    organs and tubes that process and carry urine out of the body.

Symptoms that may mean the cancer has spread to other
parts of the body, or metastasized, include:

  • Weight loss.
  • Bone pain.
  • Swelling in the legs and feet.

What Happens

Prostate cancer is a common cancer affecting older
men. About 12 out of 100 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer sometime during their lifetime.footnote 1 But most men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer don't die from prostate cancer.

When prostate
cancer grows large enough, it begins to fill the prostate and often can be felt
by your doctor during a
digital rectal exam. As it continues to grow, it
breaks through the outer rim of the prostate and into nearby tissues, such as
the
seminal vesicles. At this point, the disease is called
locally advanced prostate cancer.

Locally advanced prostate cancer is usually not curable. But there are treatments that can help you live longer and feel better.

After the
cancer has broken through the prostate, it may move into nearby lymph nodes.
From the lymph node system, the cancer can spread to other areas of the body.
Most often, prostate cancer spreads to the bones. It also may spread to the
lungs or other organs. When it has spread to the
lymph nodes, the disease is called metastatic prostate cancer.

Metastatic prostate cancer is not curable. But a
number of treatments are available that may help you live longer and make you feel
better.

What Increases Your Risk

A risk is anything that makes
you more likely to get a particular disease. Being older than 50 is the main
risk for
prostate cancer. About 6 out of 10 new prostate
cancers are diagnosed in men who are 65 and older.footnote 2

Your chances of getting the disease are higher
if other men in your family have had it. Your risk is doubled if your father or
brother developed prostate cancer. Your risk also depends on the age at which your relative was diagnosed. Most
men who get prostate cancer have no family history of the disease.

Race and prostate cancer

African-American
men and Jamaican men of African descent have a greater chance of developing the
kind of prostate cancer that grows and spreads. Researchers are not sure why
there is a difference in disease and death rates among different races. Some
experts think there may be a genetic link.footnote 3

When To Call a Doctor

Call your doctor immediately if you:

  • Are completely unable to urinate.
  • Have painful urination and a fever higher than
    100°F (37.78°C), chills, or
    body aches.
  • Have blood or pus in your urine or semen.

Call your doctor to schedule an appointment if you have
unexplained:

  • Weight loss.
  • Dull, aching pain in your lower back, pelvis, or hips.
  • Swollen
    lymph nodes in the groin area. These nodes are usually
    not tender.

Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting means a man will be watched closely by his doctor but not have treatments that try to cure the cancer. If an older man has serious health problems and isn't expected to live more than 10 years, he may not be able to handle treatments or even want to have treatments except those needed to keep him comfortable (palliative care).

Who to see

Doctors who can treat locally advanced and metastatic
prostate cancer include:

To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.

Exams and Tests

Locally advanced and
metastatic prostate cancer are diagnosed through
physical exams and tests, including:

  • A
    digital rectal exam, in which the doctor inserts a
    gloved finger into your rectum to feel your prostate gland. Some prostate
    tumors can be found this way.
  • A
    PSA test to measure the levels of prostate-specific
    antigen (PSA) in your blood. A higher level of PSA may indicate an enlargement,
    infection, or cancer of the prostate. A rising PSA level after treatment for
    prostate cancer can mean your cancer has come back.
  • An MRI called a multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). It shows a picture of the prostate along with other important information, such as the size of the prostate, blood flow, and what the prostate tissue looks like.
  • A tumor marker (biomarker) test, such as 4Kscore, the Mi-Prostate Score (MiPS), or the Prostate Health Index (PHI). These tests look for signs of cancer in a sample of blood or urine.
  • A transrectal ultrasound, in which the doctor inserts a probe into your rectum to check your prostate. The probe uses sound waves (ultrasound) to create a picture of the prostate.
  • A
    prostate biopsy, in which tissue is taken from your
    prostate and examined under a microscope. The other exams and tests
    can give clues that you may have prostate cancer, but only a prostate biopsy can
    tell for sure.

If you have had prostate cancer before, one or more tests
will help your doctor see if your cancer has come back or spread. These may
include:

  • Blood tests. Different types of blood tests are used to see
    whether cancer has spread to your bones or liver.
  • A
    bone scan. Radioactive material that shows up on
    X-rays is injected into your arm. An X-ray camera passes over your body, taking
    pictures as the radioactive material moves into your bones. Areas of bone
    damage show up in the pictures. Prostate cancer that has spread to the bones
    can cause this kind of damage.
  • A
    CT scan. A CT scanner directs a series of X-ray pulses
    through your body. Each X-ray pulse lasts only a fraction of a second and
    represents a "slice" of the organ or area being studied.
  • An
    MRI. An MRI uses a strong magnetic field to make
    pictures of the prostate. This can show tissue damage or disease, such as
    infection or a tumor.

Follow-up checkups

If
you have been treated for prostate cancer in the past, you've probably been
having regular checkups that include
PSA tests to check for any signs that the cancer has
come back or has spread to other parts of your body. Your doctor will watch for
any increases in your PSA level and the speed with which any increases occur. A
higher PSA does not necessarily mean your cancer has come back. But it may mean that you need further tests, such as a prostate biopsy, bone scan, CT scan, or
MRI.

Treatment Overview

Your treatment options for prostate cancer that has spread will depend on:

  • What kind of cancer cells you have. This is called the
    grade or Gleason score of your cancer. Some prostate
    cancer cells grow more quickly than others.
  • Your age.
  • Any serious health problems you might have, including urinary,
    bowel, or sexual function problems.
  • Your
    PSA level.

Treatment for
locally advanced or
metastatic prostate cancer may include hormone
therapy, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

You may
want to talk with your doctor about entering a
clinical trial of new cancer treatment options.

Treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer

Prostate cancer that has spread to
tissue around the prostate may be treated with radiation therapy, surgery, or hormone therapy. Sometimes two of these treatments are combined.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy
X-rays or protons to destroy the cancer. This treatment has improved with newer technologies, so there
are fewer side effects and complications than in the past. Radiation therapy
usually is combined with hormone therapy.

External beam radiotherapy, or EBRT, uses high-energy rays,
such as X-rays, to destroy the cancer. It is usually given in multiple doses
over several weeks. Radiation destroys tissue, so it may damage the
nerves along the side of the prostate that affect your ability to have an
erection. If you already have bowel problems, external radiation may cause your
symptoms to get worse.

Three common forms of external radiation are:

  • Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT).
    This uses a three-dimensional planning system to target a strong dose of radiation
    to the prostate cancer. This helps to protect healthy tissue from
    radiation.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This uses newer 3D-CRT technology to target the cancer.
  • Proton beam therapy. This is radiation therapy that uses a different type of energy (protons) rather than X-rays. This allows a higher amount of specifically directed radiation, which protects nearby healthy tissues (especially the rectum). Sometimes proton beam therapy is combined with X-ray therapy. (It is available only at big medical centers.)

Surgery

The two most common surgeries are:

  • Radical prostatectomy. This operation
    takes out your prostate gland and the cancer in and around it.
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). This surgery can help relieve bladder problems, because it
    removes part of the tumor that may be blocking the
    urethra, the tube that carries urine from your bladder
    through your penis. The procedure is done under
    general anesthesia. This can keep the tumor from
    growing for a while. But TURP does not take out the whole tumor.

Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy is also called androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Prostate cancer needs male
hormones (testosterone) in order to survive. Hormone therapy
decreases the amount of testosterone and other male hormones in your body. This
often causes tumors to shrink.

Combination treatments

In some cases, men will have radiation therapy after a
prostatectomy, especially if the tumor could not be completely removed by
surgery.

Some men choose to start hormone therapy only after they
have symptoms. But many doctors recommend starting hormone therapy right away
if cancer is found in the
lymph nodes during surgery to remove the prostate. Early treatment may allow
men to live a little longer. Other doctors say to wait, because waiting delays
the bothersome and serious side effects of hormone therapy.

Treatment for metastatic prostate cancer

Treatment for
prostate cancer that has spread to the bones and/or
other organs in the body is aimed at relieving symptoms and slowing the
cancer's growth. Treatment may include:

Hormone therapy usually works well at first to stop
cancer growth. But in most cases, the cancer begins to grow again within a few years. At this
point, the cancer is described as hormone-resistant,
meaning it is not responding to standard hormone therapy. When this happens,
other kinds of hormone treatments may be tried.

When hormone treatments no longer keep the cancer from growing, the cancer is called castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Treatments that may be used to help men live longer include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and medicines like enzalutamide.

Treatment for pain

Pain is one of the main concerns of people who have metastatic cancer. But cancer pain can almost always be controlled. You and your doctor have several options to help your pain, including pain-relieving medicines and radiation, such as external beam radiation therapy and bone-targeted radioisotopes.

Additional information about prostate cancer is provided by the National Cancer Institute at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/prostate.

Palliative care

Palliative care is a kind of care for people who have a serious illness. It's different from care to cure your illness. Its goal is to improve your quality of life—not just in your body but also in your mind and spirit.

You can have this care along with treatment to cure your illness.

Palliative care providers will work to help control pain or side effects. They may help you decide what treatment you want or don't want. And they can help your loved ones understand how to support you.

If you're interested in palliative care, talk to your doctor.

For more information, see
the topic
Palliative Care.

Hospice care

For some people who have advanced cancer, a time comes when treatment to cure the cancer no longer seems like a good choice. This can be because the side effects, time, and costs of treatment are greater than the promise of cure or relief. But you can still get treatment to make you as comfortable as possible during the time you have left. You and your doctor can decide when you may be ready for hospice care.

For more information, see
the topics:

Prevention

Prostate cancer
can't be prevented. But there are steps you can take to reduce your risk for this disease. For more information, see the topic
Prostate Cancer.

Home Treatment

During medical care for any stage of
prostate cancer, there are things you can do at home
to help manage symptoms of prostate cancer or side effects of treatment:

  • Nausea or vomiting. After vomiting has stopped for 1
    hour, sip a
    rehydration drink to restore lost fluids and
    nutrients. Watch for and treat early signs of
    dehydration. Older adults can quickly become
    dehydrated from vomiting. Your doctor may also prescribe
    medicines to control nausea and vomiting. For more
    information on how to deal with these side effects, see:

    Cancer: Controlling Nausea and Vomiting From Chemotherapy.
  • Pain. For pain, talk to your doctor about using
    aspirin, acetaminophen (such as Tylenol), or another type of
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Or ask
    about an
    opioid medicine. You can also try an alternative
    therapy such as
    biofeedback. Be sure to discuss with your doctor any
    home treatment you use for pain.
  • Diarrhea. Don't eat until you are feeling better. Take
    frequent, small sips of water or a rehydration drink and small bites of salty
    crackers. Begin eating mild foods (such as rice, dry toast or crackers,
    bananas, broth, and applesauce) the next day or sooner, depending on how you
    feel.
  • Constipation. Make sure you drink enough fluids. Most
    adults should drink between 8 and 10 glasses of water or noncaffeinated
    beverages each day. Include fruits, vegetables, and fiber in your diet each
    day.
  • Sleep problems. Often, simple measures such as having
    a regular bedtime, getting some exercise during the day, and avoiding caffeine
    late in the day can relieve sleep problems.
  • Urinary problems. Home treatment for urinary
    incontinence includes eliminating caffeinated drinks from your diet and
    establishing a schedule of urinating every 3 to 4 hours, regardless of whether
    you feel the need. You may also try doing
    pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises to strengthen your
    pelvic muscles.

During medical treatment for prostate cancer, you may
experience emotional problems. See the following tips for managing:

  • Stress. Expressing your feelings to others may help
    you understand and cope with them. Learning relaxation techniques may also be
    helpful.
  • Body image and sexuality. Your feelings about your body and your sexuality may
    change after treatment for cancer. Prostate cancer treatments have side effects that almost always affect a man's sexual function, such as loss of sexual desire and the inability to have erections. Treatments can also cause shrinking of the penis and testicles. Talk openly with your partner about your concerns. And discuss with your doctor your concerns about any sexual problems.

Having cancer can change your life in many ways. For help with managing these changes, see the topic: Getting Support When You Have Cancer.

Medications

Medicines may be used to slow the growth of
prostate cancer and to relieve your symptoms.

Prostate cancer needs the male hormone
testosterone to grow. Hormone therapy uses special
drugs to block the production or action of testosterone and may cause the
cancer to shrink. This can improve your symptoms. Hormone therapy may be given
before or after
radiation or
surgery to remove the prostate.

Hormone therapy usually works well at
first to stop cancer growth. But in most cases the cancer returns in a few
years. At this point, the cancer is called hormone-resistant. This means it will no longer get better
with hormone therapy. When this happens, other kinds of hormone treatment may
work. If the cancer continues to grow, chemotherapy or immunotherapy may be the next choice.

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to control cancer's
growth or relieve pain. Often the drugs are given through a needle in your
vein, and your blood vessels carry the drugs through your body. Sometimes the
drugs are available as pills you can swallow. Sometimes they are given through
a shot, or injection.

Chemotherapy usually involves two or more
drugs given together. Combinations may work better than a single medicine. That's because each drug can attack the cancer cells in a different way. This is most often used when prostate cancer
is hormone-resistant.

Immunotherapy is treatment that uses the body's
immune system to destroy the cancer cells. This is used for prostate cancer that is hormone-resistant.

Medicine Choices

Hormone therapy

  • LH-RH agonists/GnRH agonists, such as goserelin (Zoladex) and leuprolide
    (Lupron).
  • GnRH antagonists, such as degarelix (Firmagon).
  • Antiandrogens, such as abiraterone (Zytiga), bicalutamide (Casodex), flutamide, and nilutamide
    (Nilandron).

Hormone therapy is commonly used with radiation therapy. It may be used alone with metastatic cancer.

Chemotherapy

  • Carboplatin
  • Cisplatin
  • Docetaxel
  • Etoposide
  • Paclitaxel

Chemotherapy may be helpful when prostate cancer no longer responds to hormone therapy.

Medicines for castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)

Medicines to treat CRPC include:

  • Abiraterone (Zytiga), given with prednisone (both are pills).
  • Chemotherapy with cabazitaxel (Jevtana), given by IV.
  • Enzalutamide (Xtandi), given as pills.
  • Immunotherapy with sipuleucel-T (Provenge), a vaccine given by injection.

Pain-relief and appetite-stimulant drugs

Pain-relief and appetite-stimulant drugs may be used when prostate cancer
has spread to other parts of the body.

  • Steroids, such as hydrocortisone or prednisone,
    control pain and improve appetite.
  • Radioactive drugs, such as radium-223 (Xofigo), samarium-153, and strontium-89, are
    called radionuclides. They are absorbed near the area of bone pain. Then the
    radiation that is released helps relieve the pain caused by tumors that have
    spread to the bone.
  • Denosumab (Xgeva) and bisphosphonate drugs, such as pamidronate (Aredia) and zoledronic acid (Zometa), may help relieve
    bone pain and prevent
    osteoporosis, which is sometimes caused by long-term
    hormone therapy.

Pain medicines are made that specifically treat mild,
moderate, and severe pain, as well as different types of pain such as burning
and tingling. To learn more, see:

Cancer: Controlling Cancer Pain.

For more information, see the topic
Cancer Pain.

Medicines for treating side effects

Hormone
therapy can cause loss of sexual desire,
hot flashes, enlarged and painful breasts, and
erection problems.

  • For men who have erection problems after surgery, medicines
    such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), or vardenafil (Levitra) may be
    helpful. Using medicines soon after surgery may help men regain sexual function. Talk with your doctor about your situation.
  • Taking a temporary break from hormone therapy can make some
    side effects go away.
  • To relieve breast pain, the anti-estrogen breast cancer
    medicine called
    tamoxifen or radiation treatment is commonly used.
    Tamoxifen can also help reverse breast growth. Also, it causes hot
    flashes.
  • For hot flashes, taking a certain kind of
    antidepressant may help.
    Paroxetine or venlafaxine may help with hot flashes. But they have different side effects. So if you are having a problem with hot flashes, talk
    with your doctor.

What to think about

Antiandrogen hormone therapy also
may cause diarrhea, breast tenderness, and nausea. Cases of liver problems,
some serious, have been reported.

Hormone therapy can also affect the bones, making them thin and brittle and more likely to break. Medicines such as bisphosphonates and denosumab may help prevent bone loss during long-term hormone therapy.

Surgery

Surgery to treat
prostate cancer is usually reserved for men in good
health who are younger than 70 and who choose to have surgery. Surgery may be
done to relieve symptoms and to slow the growth of cancer.

Surgery choices

  • Radical prostatectomy, the removal of the prostate and
    its cancer. It is not usually done if the cancer has spread to other parts of
    the body.
  • Orchiectomy, the removal of the testicles. This may
    cause the cancer to shrink and may improve symptoms, because prostate cancer
    often needs the testosterone made by the testicles to grow.
  • TURP, or transurethral resection of the prostate. This
    operation can help to relieve bladder problems, because it removes part of the
    tumor that may be blocking the urethra, the tube that carries urine from your
    bladder through your penis. This can keep the tumor from growing for a while.
    But TURP does not take out the whole tumor.

What to think about

Surgical
removal of the testicles (orchiectomy) and hormone therapy medicines have some
of the same side effects, including hot flashes, larger breasts, loss of sexual
desire, and the inability to have an erection.

Other Treatment

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy for
prostate cancer
may be used alone or combined with
hormone treatment. Radiation therapy also is used to relieve
pain from metastatic cancer or cancer that comes back after surgery.

Radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer is often combined
with hormone treatment. Using both together may improve your chances of being
disease-free for longer and living longer.footnote 4

External-beam radiation therapy uses a large machine
to aim a beam of radiation at your tumor to destroy cancer cells. The radiation
damages the genetic material of the cells so that they can't grow. Although
radiation damages normal cells as well as cancer cells, the normal cells can
repair themselves and function, while the cancer cells cannot. If cancer has
spread to your bones, radiation treatment may be given to specific areas to
relieve pain.

Complementary therapy

People sometimes use complementary therapies along with medical treatment to help relieve symptoms and side effects of cancer treatments. Some of the complementary therapies that may be helpful include:

Mind-body treatments like those mentioned above may help you feel better and cope better with treatment. These treatments also may reduce chronic low back pain, joint pain, headaches, and pain from cancer treatments.

Before you try a complementary therapy, talk to your doctor about
the possible value and potential side effects. Let your doctor know if you are
already using any such therapies. Complementary therapies are not meant to take
the place of standard medical treatment, but they may improve your quality of
life and help you deal with the stress and side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials

You
may be interested in taking part in research studies called clinical trials. Clinical trials are designed to
find better ways to treat prostate cancer patients and are based on the most up-to-date information. People who do not want standard treatments or are not cured by standard treatments may want to take part in
clinical trials.

Check with your doctor to see whether clinical trials are in your area and whether you might be eligible.

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

American Cancer Society (ACS)
250 Williams Street NWAtlanta, GA 30303
www.cancer.org

National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
www.cancer.gov (or https://livehelp.cancer.gov/app/chat/chat_launch for live help online)

References

Citations

  1. National Cancer Institute (2017). SEER cancer stat facts: Prostate cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html. Accessed July 10, 2017.
  2. American Cancer Society (2012). Cancer Facts and Figures 2012. Atlanta: American Cancer Society. Available online: http://www.cancer.org/Research/CancerFactsFigures/CancerFactsFigures/cancer-facts-figures-2012.
  3. Robbins C, et al. (2007). Confirmation study of prostate cancer risk variants at 8q24 in African Americans identifies a novel risk locus. Genome Research, 17(12): 1717–1722.
  4. National Cancer Institute (2012). Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ)—Health Professional Version. Available online: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/prostate/HealthProfessional.

Other Works Consulted

  • LeBlanc TW, Abernethy AP (2015). Management of cancer pain. In VT DeVita Jr et al., eds., DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer Principles and Practices of Oncology, 10th ed., pp. 2084–2104. Philadelphia: Walters Kluwer.
  • Loblaw DA, et al. (2007). Initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer: 2007 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(12): 1596–1605.
  • National Cancer Institute (2011). Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ)—Patient Version. Available online: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/prostate/patient.
  • National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2012). Prostate cancer. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, version 2.2012. Available online: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp.
  • Nelson JB (2012). Hormone therapy for prostate cancer. In AJ Wein et al., eds., Campbell-Walsh Urology, 10th ed., vol. 3, pp. 2934–2953. Philadelphia: Saunders.
  • Rosenberg JE, Kantoff PW (2011). Prostate cancer. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, section 12, chap. 9. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.

Credits

ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine Specialist Medical Reviewer Christopher G. Wood, MD, FACS - Urology, Oncology

Current as ofFebruary 26, 2018